File Name: learned helplessness theory and evidence .zip
Failure is a familiar trauma in life, but its effects on people differ widely.
Learned helplessness is a behavior pattern involving a maladaptive response characterized by avoidance of challenges, negative affect, and the collapse of problem-solving strategies when obstacles arise.
Learned helplessness is behavior exhibited by a subject after enduring repeated aversive stimuli beyond their control. It was initially thought to be caused from the subject's acceptance of their powerlessness: discontinuing attempts to escape or avoid the aversive stimulus, even when such alternatives are unambiguously presented.
Upon exhibiting such behavior, the subject was said to have acquired learned helplessness. In humans, learned helplessness is related to the concept of self-efficacy ; the individual's belief in their innate ability to achieve goals. Learned helplessness theory is the view that clinical depression and related mental illnesses may result from such real or perceived absence of control over the outcome of a situation.
American psychologist Martin Seligman initiated research on learned helplessness in at the University of Pennsylvania as an extension of his interest in depression. Group 1 dogs were simply put in a harness for a period of time and were later released. Groups 2 and 3 consisted of " yoked pairs ". Dogs in Group 2 were given electric shocks at random times, which the dog could end by pressing a lever. Each dog in Group 3 was paired with a Group 2 dog; whenever a Group 2 dog got a shock, its paired dog in Group 3 got a shock of the same intensity and duration, but its lever did not stop the shock.
To a dog in Group 3, it seemed that the shock ended at random because it was their paired dog in Group 2 that was causing it to stop. Thus, for Group 3 dogs, the shock was "inescapable". In Part 2 of the experiment, the same three groups of dogs were tested in a shuttle-box apparatus a chamber containing two rectangular compartments divided by a barrier a few inches high.
All of the dogs could escape shocks on one side of the box by jumping over a low partition to the other side. The dogs in Groups 1 and 2 quickly learned this task and escaped the shock.
Most of the Group 3 dogs — which had previously learned that nothing they did had any effect on shocks — simply lay down passively and whined when they were shocked. In a second experiment later that year with new groups of dogs, Maier and Seligman ruled out the possibility that, instead of learned helplessness, the Group 3 dogs failed to avert in the second part of the test because they had learned some behavior that interfered with "escape".
To prevent such interfering behavior, Group 3 dogs were immobilized with a paralyzing drug curare and underwent a procedure similar to that in Part 1 of the Seligman and Overmier experiment. When tested as before in Part 2, these Group 3 dogs exhibited helplessness as before.
This result serves as an indicator for the ruling out of the interference hypothesis. From these experiments, it was thought that there was to be only one cure for helplessness. In Seligman's hypothesis, the dogs do not try to escape because they expect that nothing they do will stop the shock.
To change this expectation, experimenters physically picked up the dogs and moved their legs, replicating the actions the dogs would need to take in order to escape from the electrified grid. This had to be done at least twice before the dogs would start willfully jumping over the barrier on their own. In contrast, threats, rewards, and observed demonstrations had no effect on the "helpless" Group 3 dogs. Later experiments have served to confirm the depressive effect of feeling a lack of control over an aversive stimulus.
For example, in one experiment, humans performed mental tasks in the presence of distracting noise. Those who could use a switch to turn off the noise rarely bothered to do so, yet they performed better than those who could not turn off the noise. Simply being aware of this option was enough to substantially counteract the noise effect. Animals that lacked control failed to exhibit this neural effect and showed signs consistent with learned helplessness and social anxiety. Research has found that a human's reaction to feeling a lack of control differs both between individuals and between situations, i.
Teasdale reformulated Seligman's work, using attribution theory. They proposed that people differed in how they classified negative experiences on three scales, from internal to external, stable to unstable, and from global to specific.
The believed that people who were more likely to attribute negative events to internal, stable, and global causes were more likely to become depressed than those attributed things to causes at the other ends of the scales. Bernard Weiner proposed a detailed account of the attributional approach to learned helplessness in Research has shown that those with an internal, stable, and global attributional style for negative events can be more at risk for a depressive reaction to failure experiences.
Research has shown that increased 5-HT serotonin activity in the dorsal raphe nucleus plays a critical role in learned helplessness. Other key brain regions that are involved with the expression of helpless behavior include the basolateral amygdala , central nucleus of the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.
Greenwood and Monika Fleshner discuss how exercise might prevent stress-related disorders such as anxiety and depression. They show evidence that running wheel exercise prevents learned helplessness behaviors in rats. The article also discusses the neurocircuitry of learned helplessness, the role of serotonin or 5-HT , and the exercise-associated neural adaptations that may contribute to the stress-resistant brain.
However, the authors finally conclude that "The underlying neurobiological mechanisms of this effect, however, remain unknown. Identifying the mechanisms by which exercise prevents learned helplessness could shed light on the complex neurobiology of depression and anxiety and potentially lead to novel strategies for the prevention of stress-related mood disorders". People who perceive events as uncontrollable show a variety of symptoms that threaten their mental and physical well-being.
They experience stress, they often show disruption of emotions demonstrating passivity or aggressivity, and they can also have difficulty performing cognitive tasks such as problem-solving. Abnormal and cognitive psychologists have found a strong correlation between depression-like symptoms and learned helplessness in laboratory animals. Young adults and middle-aged parents with a pessimistic explanatory style often suffer from depression. Social problems resulting from learned helplessness may seem unavoidable to those entrenched.
However, there are various ways to reduce or prevent it. When induced in experimental settings, learned helplessness has been shown to resolve itself with the passage of time. Seeking out these types of treatment options can be extremely helpful for people stuck in a rut when it comes to learned helplessness.
While it may initially feel hard to escape, with the proper time and help it can get better. Cognitive scientist and usability engineer Donald Norman used learned helplessness to explain why people blame themselves when they have a difficult time using simple objects in their environment. The UK educationalist Phil Bagge describes it as a learning avoidance strategy caused by prior failure and the positive reinforcement of avoidance such as asking teachers or peers to explain and consequently do the work.
It shows itself as sweet helplessness or aggressive helplessness often seen in challenging problem solving contexts, such as learning to use a new computer programming language.
The US sociologist Harrison White has suggested in his book Identity and Control that the notion of learned helplessness can be extended beyond psychology into the realm of social action. When a culture or political identity fails to achieve desired goals, perceptions of collective ability suffer. Studies on learned helplessness served as the basis for developing enhanced interrogation techniques. In CIA interrogation manuals , learned helplessness is characterized as "apathy" which may result from prolonged use of coercive techniques which result in a "debility-dependency-dread" state in the subject, "If the debility-dependency-dread state is unduly prolonged, however, the arrestee may sink into a defensive apathy from which it is hard to arouse him.
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Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Defeatism Depression Fundamental attribution error Learned industriousness Learned optimism Locus of control Pervasive refusal syndrome Self-handicapping Somebody else's problem Stockholm syndrome Spiral of silence Victim playing Behavioral theories of depression.
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Learned helplessness is behavior exhibited by a subject after enduring repeated aversive stimuli beyond their control. It was initially thought to be caused from the subject's acceptance of their powerlessness: discontinuing attempts to escape or avoid the aversive stimulus, even when such alternatives are unambiguously presented. Upon exhibiting such behavior, the subject was said to have acquired learned helplessness. In humans, learned helplessness is related to the concept of self-efficacy ; the individual's belief in their innate ability to achieve goals. Learned helplessness theory is the view that clinical depression and related mental illnesses may result from such real or perceived absence of control over the outcome of a situation. American psychologist Martin Seligman initiated research on learned helplessness in at the University of Pennsylvania as an extension of his interest in depression.
Learned helplessness is a state that occurs after a person has experienced a stressful situation repeatedly. They come to believe that they are unable to control or change the situation, so they do not try — even when opportunities for change become available. Psychologists first described learned helplessness in after a series of experiments in animals, and they suggested that their findings could apply to humans. Learned helplessness leads to increased feelings of stress and depression. For some people, it is linked with post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD.
the theory of learned helplessness, opponents suggested alternative explanations of the The bulk of the evidence suggests that exposure to uncontrollable.
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The theory of learned helplessness was conceptualized and developed by American psychologist Martin E.
You may just take a Tax Declaration Form in with you pre-filled. Above photo: A mighty elephant restrained by a tiny rope and peg. A disclaimer: these shocks were not painful to the dogs, just not that pleasant to be around.
By Dr. Saul McLeod , published Depression is a mood disorder which prevents individuals from leading a normal life, at work socially or within their family. Behaviorism emphasizes the importance of the environment in shaping behavior.
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SUMMARY In , Overmier and Seligman found that dogs exposed to inescapable and unavoidable electric shocks in one situation later failed to learn to.Karolin B. 21.05.2021 at 10:48
New York: Palgrave Macmillan; Seligman ME, Peterson C. A learned helplessness perspective on. childhood depression: Theory and.Merle S. 22.05.2021 at 18:40
Journal ol Experimental Psychology: General. , Vol. , No. 1, Learned Helplessness: Theory and Evidence. Steven F. Maier. Martin E. P. Seligman.