File Name: crime and its types in sociology .zip
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In this article, she has written about what white collar crimes are, its various types and how it is growing at a faster rate and impacting our society. They have to be dealt with sternly. However well placed important and influential they maybe, if we acquiesce in wrongdoing, people will lose faith in us. The five attributes of the given definition are:. Related to the corporate sector, white collar crimes are defined as non-violent crimes, generally committed by businessmen and government professionals.
Personality is a major factor in many kinds of behavior, one of which is criminal behavior. This study tries to identify different personality traits which link criminals to their personality.
In the present study, 37 male criminals of district jail of Dhanbad Jharkhand and 36 normal controls were included on a purposive sampling basis. Each criminal was given a personal datasheet and Cattel's 16 personality factors PFs scale for assessing their sociodemographic variables and different personality traits. The objective of this study was to examine the relation between personality traits and criminal behavior, and to determine whether such factors are predictive of future recidivism.
Results indicated high scores on intelligence, impulsiveness, suspicion, self-sufficient, spontaneity, self-concept control factors, and very low scores on emotionally less stable on Cattel's 16 PFs scale in criminals as compared with normal.
Criminals differ from general population or non criminals in terms of personality traits. Are criminals born or made? This question has baffled psychologists, sociologists, and criminologists for many years, and efforts have been made to establish the nature of criminality. In the s, it was thought that home life, upbringing, inconsistent affection, physical abuse, and inconsistent discipline could result in criminality. Another area that may suggest an individual's personality is likely to cause criminal behavior is that of psychopathy.
They are incapable of loyalty to individuals, groups, or social values. It usually begins in childhood or as teen and continues into their adult life. This study also indicates that there are debates that try to relate or predict criminality by looking at the factors of an individual's personality. Behavior is largely a result of the way a person thinks.
A personality is what makes a person. Even though a person might have the look of a criminal, the thought patterns of that person are what make them a criminal. The criminal's decisions to commit crimes come from abnormal thinking patterns, says a psychoanalyst from St. Elizabeth's Hospital. Researchers Yocheleson and Samenow identify similar thought patterns found in crimes, which include constant lying, fail to develop empathy, expect their desires to be catered to them, loving someone for doing what they want, black and white thinkers no middle ground or moderation , and blame others.
Criminals who have been tested are proved to be less responsible, intolerant, and deficient in self-control, according to the California Psychological Inventory. Some of the most studied researches into the origins of crime and personality have been done by Professor Hans Eysenck, who spent years defining whether criminal behavior had any relationship with personality. He identified that personalities have three dimensions.
First, psychoticism describes people as being aggressive, egocentric, and impulsive. Second, neuroticism describes people with low self-esteem, anxiety, and wide mood swings. The third is extroversion, which describes the personality of an individual who is sensation-seeking, dominant, and assertive. A majority of these traits are found in criminals, which have been studied and classified. A study was conducted by Cauffman on personality traits in a consecutive series of male prisoners in Swedish jails sentenced for serious criminality.
The investigation included a psychiatric examination by means of the Structured Clinical Interview as well as information taken from criminal records. In the KSP, high scores were found in scales related to impulsiveness, sensation-seeking, nervous tension and distress, cognitive-social anxiety, hostility, and aggression.
Very low scores were found in the socialization scale, reflecting a high degree of psychopathy-related personality traits. Furthermore, psychopathy-related personality traits were common. In the relation between personality traits and crime, two studies were conducted by Krueger et al. In both the studies, they found multiple and independent measures of personality and delinquent involvement.
The personality correlates of delinquency were robust in different nations, in different age cohorts, across gender, and across race.
Greater delinquent participation was associated with a personality configuration characterized by high-negative emotionality the tendency to experience aversive affective states and weak constraint difficulty in impulse control. They were asked to complete questionnaires, assessing distress and restraint relating to personality characteristics.
Results indicate a significant association between self-reported levels of distress and restraint prior to criminal behavior as well as behavior during incarceration. In a study of criminals by Bhojak, et al. Weak ego strength was noted among juvenile delinquents Dhila and Yagnik, [ 17 ] and criminals Bhardwaj, Dayal, et al.
He described that criminals had a lower self-esteem and social esteem indicating a lack of self-regard, thus exhibit neurotic traits such as anxiety, irritability, hostility, maladjustment, and insecurity. He reported considerable depression among married female prisoners. He found that female convicts were suffering from feelings of anxiety, guilt, insecurity, and low self-esteem.
A study conducted by Bhosle on a sample of 69 female convicts revealed that the inmates were found to be maladjusted in marital life and relations. Offenders group comprised convicted prisoners for different crimes such as murder, rape, and robbery, selected from Birsa Munda Central Jail, Hotwar, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India, based on a purposive sampling.
The convicted offenders group obtained significantly lower scores on EI compared to normal controls. The role of various sociodemographic variables in substance abusers, which affected their criminal behavior, was also studied and it was found that personality characteristics of the substance abusers differed significantly from the normal controls, and the number of variables including occupational status, socioeconomic status, family history of substance use, and type of substance abuse significantly correlated with the criminal behavior in the substance abusers.
Results indicated that four psychological traits: Personality traits, low self-control, aggressive behavior, and cognitive distortion act as the major psychological factor underlying criminal behavior within an individual. Crimes vary in degree of severity according to the severity of the punishment. Crimes are generally graded into three categories: a Summary - It is relatively minor crime. Punishment is usually a monetary fine and short period of jail time a few days up to a few months b Misdemeanors - It is less serious crime, lower level of intent to kill or harm to any specific victim or society, punishable by jail time of 1 year or less.
The fundamental distinction between felonies and misdemeanors depends on the penalty and the power of imprisonment. Here, in the present study, criminals from the last two categories were included. The aim and objective of this study was to examine the relation between personality traits and criminal behavior, and to determine whether such personality traits are predictive of future recidivism.
A sample of 37 male, convicted criminals of district jail of Dhanbad Jharkhand was included in this study on a purposive sampling basis. Their crimes were of different kinds such as murder, rape, theft, kidnapping, forgery, dowry death, and dacoity as per the Indian Penal Code. The age ranges from 20 to 65 years mean age — In socioeconomics, three categories, i. The average family income of the 37 criminals was Rs.
In control group, 37 normal controls were taken from the general population noncriminal. A designed pro forma was used to collect sociodemographic variables.
It is an objective scorable test devised by Cattel in It measures the 16 dimensions of the personality, and all the 16 factors are bipolar. After obtaining permission from the concerned authorities, the criminals were interviewed and the tests were administered after establishing a good rapport with them. Mean and standard deviation of Sten scores of criminal and normal controls for 16 personality dimensions. Studies from outside of India strongly suggest how personality influences criminal activity.
In this connection, we can quote the study of Lombrosso — , who is regarded as the father of criminology, developed a theory that some people are genetically closer to their primate ancestors than others; he proposed that some people are born with an innate predisposition to criminality and antisocial behavior.
Further, he concluded that criminals had distinguishing physical features that set them apart from noncriminal population. High score on H factor indicates criminals' thick skinniness that enables them to face wear and tear in dealing with people and grueling emotional situations, carelessness, have a tendency to ignore danger signals, actively interested in the opposite sex, always ready to try new things, and abundant in emotional response [ Table 1 ].
High score on I factor indicates that criminals have a tendency to be tender minded, daydreaming, sensitive, sometimes demanding of attention and help, and impractical [ Table 1 ]. Again high score on Q3 factor shows criminals tend to have strong control of their emotions, and the general behavior is inclined to be socially aware and careful [ Table 1 ].
Low score on B, F, N, and Q4 factors revealed their below average level of intelligence, restrained tendency, unsophisticated, sentimental, sometimes crude and awkward behavior, and tends to be relaxed and satisfied [ Table 1 ]. Although criminals did not differ much from normal controls on factor C, their low score on this scale revealed their tendency to be emotionally less stable [ Table 1 ].
These findings can also be seen at a glance in the graph [ Figure 1 ]. This finding is consistent with the previous studies that were done by Caspi et al. Only factor Q3 on which criminals scored higher than normal controls indicates their strong control in emotion which was not consistent with the findings of the previous study [ Table 1 ].
Although the criminal scores on Q3 factor were higher than normal, it was within average range, as the mean score was 5. It may be due to the fact that today the nature and technique of crime is changing rapidly from earlier. Not only that, new and advanced technology is also being used in committing crime, which requires enough control in using them. The results support the view that criminals differ from general population or non-criminals in terms of personality features. These traits have also discriminant and predictive validity for future recidivism.
However, there is a dearth of literature in this field. Hence, there is a considerable gap in this area, and it is suggested that more research is needed. The author would like to thank Mr. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Journal List Ind Psychiatry J v. Ind Psychiatry J. Sudhinta Sinha. Sudhinta Sinha Department of Psychology, S. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Department of Psychology, S. Women's College, Dhanbad, Jharkhand, India. Address for correspondence: Dr. E-mail: moc. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract Background: Personality is a major factor in many kinds of behavior, one of which is criminal behavior. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 37 male criminals of district jail of Dhanbad Jharkhand and 36 normal controls were included on a purposive sampling basis. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the relation between personality traits and criminal behavior, and to determine whether such factors are predictive of future recidivism.
A crime is defined as any act that is contrary to legal code or laws. There are many different types of crimes, from crimes against persons to victimless crimes and violent crimes to white collar crimes. The study of crime and deviance is a large subfield within sociology, with much attention paid to who commits which types of crimes and why. Crimes against persons also called personal crimes, include murder, aggravated assault, rape, and robbery. Property crimes involve the theft of property without bodily harm, such as burglary, larceny, auto theft, and arson. Like personal crimes, young, urban, poor, and racial minorities are arrested for these crimes more than others. The rate of hate crimes in the U.
Because a full discussion of the many types of crime would take several chapters or For its part, the focus on rape and sexual assault reflects the contemporary 9), a sociologist who coined the term in the s and defined it as “a crime.
Crime is the breach of rules or laws for which some governing authority can ultimately prescribe a conviction. Crimes may also result in cautions, rehabilitation, or be unenforced. Individual human societies may each define crime and crimes differently, in different localities, and at different time stages of the crime. In sociology, a normative definition views crime as deviant behavior that violates prevailing norms, or cultural standards prescribing how humans ought to behave normally. This approach considers the complex realities surrounding the concept of crime and seeks to understand how changing social, political, psychological, and economic conditions may affect changing definitions of crime and the form of the legal, law-enforcement, and penal responses made by society.
Many types of crime exist. Criminologists commonly group crimes into several major categories: 1 violent crime; 2 property crime; 3 white-collar crime; 4 organized crime; and 5 consensual or victimless crime. Within each category, many more specific crimes exist.
A victim is a person who suffers direct or threatened physical, emotional or financial harm as a result of an act by someone else, which is a crime. Sexual Misconduct is an umbrella term that includes any non-consensual sexual activity that is committed by force or fear or mental or physical incapacitation, including through the use of alcohol or drugs. Sexual misconduct can vary in its severity and consists of a range of behavior, including rape, statutory rape sexual contact with a person under 18 years old , sexual touching, sexual exploitation, sexual harassment, and conduct suggestive of attempting to commit any of the aforementioned acts. Sexual Touching — Sexual touching, also known as sexual battery, is the act of making unwanted and sexually offensive contact clothed or unclothed with an intimate body part of another person or action, which causes immediate apprehension that sexual touch will occur. Intimate body parts include sexual organs, the anus, the groin, breasts or buttocks of any person. Sexual touching includes situations in which the accused engages in the contacts described with a person who is incapable of giving consent. Sexual Exploitation — Sexual exploitation is the taking advantage of a non-consenting person or situation for personal benefit or gratification or for the benefit of anyone other than the alleged victim; and the behavior does not constitute rape, sexual touching or sexual harassment.
Cybercrime , also called computer crime , the use of a computer as an instrument to further illegal ends, such as committing fraud , trafficking in child pornography and intellectual property, stealing identities , or violating privacy. Cybercrime, especially through the Internet , has grown in importance as the computer has become central to commerce, entertainment, and government. Because of the early and widespread adoption of computers and the Internet in the United States, most of the earliest victims and villains of cybercrime were Americans. By the 21st century, though, hardly a hamlet remained anywhere in the world that had not been touched by cybercrime of one sort or another. New technologies create new criminal opportunities but few new types of crime.
Personality is a major factor in many kinds of behavior, one of which is criminal behavior. This study tries to identify different personality traits which link criminals to their personality. In the present study, 37 male criminals of district jail of Dhanbad Jharkhand and 36 normal controls were included on a purposive sampling basis. Each criminal was given a personal datasheet and Cattel's 16 personality factors PFs scale for assessing their sociodemographic variables and different personality traits. The objective of this study was to examine the relation between personality traits and criminal behavior, and to determine whether such factors are predictive of future recidivism. Results indicated high scores on intelligence, impulsiveness, suspicion, self-sufficient, spontaneity, self-concept control factors, and very low scores on emotionally less stable on Cattel's 16 PFs scale in criminals as compared with normal. Criminals differ from general population or non criminals in terms of personality traits.
This article concentrates on the concept of crime, its elements, criminology, various stages in commission of crime, causes of crime and types of.
White-collar crime or corporate crime , more accurately refers to financially motivated, nonviolent crime committed by businesses and government professionals. Modern criminology generally rejects a limitation of the term by reference, [ jargon ] rather it classifies the type of crime and the topic:. The types of crime committed are a function of what is available to the potential offender. Thus, those employed in relatively unskilled environments have fewer opportunities to exploit than those who work in situations where large financial transactions occur. Therefore, blue-collar crime will more often use physical force, whereas in the corporate world, the identification of a victim is less obvious and the issue of reporting is complicated by a culture of commercial confidentiality to protect shareholder value.
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Ей обрыдли ее испанская семейка и местное житье-бытье. Три братца-испанца не спускали с нее глаз. И горячей воды. Беккер почувствовал комок в горле. - Когда она уезжает.
Он все рассказал, нажал клавишу PRINT и застрелился. Хейл поклялся, что никогда больше не переступит порога тюрьмы, и сдержал слово, предпочтя смерть. - Дэвид… - всхлипывала .
Это было непостижимо. Если информация верна, выходит, Танкадо и его партнер - это одно и то же лицо. Мысли ее смешались. Хоть бы замолчала эта омерзительная сирена. Почему Стратмор отмел такую возможность.
Беккер попробовал выбраться и свернуть на улицу Матеуса-Гаго, но понял, что находится в плену людского потока. Идти приходилось плечо к плечу, носок в пятку. У испанцев всегда было иное представление о плотности, чем у остального мира.
Нельзя, чтобы Хейл что-то заподозрил. ГЛАВА 43 В свои сорок пять Чед Бринкерхофф отличался тем, что носил тщательно отутюженные костюмы, был всегда аккуратно причесан и прекрасно информирован. На легком летнем костюме, как и на загорелой коже, не было ни морщинки.
Но затем стала подниматься вторая стена, за ней третья. Еще несколько мгновений, и весь набор фильтров был восстановлен. Банк данных снова был в безопасности.