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Use of the information and instructions contained in this work is at your own risk. CSS Transitions and Animations. Constant width bold Shows commands or other text that should be typed literally by the user. This element signifies a general note. Using Code Examples Whenever you come across an icon that looks like , it means there is an associated code example. You can either click on the icon while reading this book in electronic format to go directly to a live version of the code v www.
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For more information about Safari Books Online, please visit us online. David Baron is a distinguished engineer at Mozilla. At Mozilla, Baron implemented media queries, CSS transitions and animations, and the CSS calc function, and designed and implemented the reftest test format and fixes for :visited privacy. He can be found on Twitter at davidbaron, and on the Web. Preface vii www. She is also a staff writer at CSS-Tricks.
Transitions and animations let you define the transition between two or more states of an element. Used correctly, CSS animations and transitions can give your web applications life and depth. By adding the dimension of time, animating can help your UX communicate on a different level. Some of these principles are very relevant to CSS animation as well.
Anticipation Users may not understand an animation unless there is a sequence of actions that leads clearly from one activity to the next. They must anticipate or expect a change before it actually occurs. On the Web, it could be a button depression before the start of the more extensive animation that starts when the button is selected.
Guide your users mentally to where they should focus before initiating the main effect, especially if the start of the animation is important. Staging In a cartoon, staging is the presentation of an idea so it is unmistakably clear. Staging helps guide users through the story or idea being told: for example, through the steps of a check-out process. Straight ahead action and pose to pose There are two main approaches to animation on the big screen. In pose to pose, the animator draws the main points within an animation and creates or has an assistant create the points in between later.
While seemingly only applicable to storyboarding, this principle is also related to drawing keyframes and how the animation fills in the space or time between them. With CSS animations, when we animate image sprites to create motion, we are emulating the Straight Ahead approach. In most animation scenarios, we let the browser be our assistant, defining specific points, or poses, within the animation and allowing the browser to interpolate property values as it animates from pose to pose, or keyframe definition to keyframe definition.
Nothing stops all at once. Overlapping action is when some components are slightly delayed after other components change direction, like the way Wile E.
His ears take a moment to follow. If your CSS animations ever become complex enough to require follow-through and overlapping action, timing will be critical to making your effects work. Only mechanical animations will proceed at a linear speed.
With cartoon animation, the effect is created by having more cells at the ends and fewer in the middle of the action. Arcs The arcs principle states that almost all actions follow an arc or slightly circular path. Think of your hand moving back and forth as you walk: your hand arcs back and forth rather than always staying at an equal distance from the ground.
Linear animations can be very mechanical. Arcs can be achieved with granular control within a keyframe animation. Secondary action Secondary actions can enrich a main action by adding dimension, supplementing or reinforcing the main action and giving the scene more life. For example, if your main animation drops a module onto a page, a secondary action might be the main call-to-action button within the module dropping into 12 Basic Principles of Animation 3 www. A secondary action should reinforce the main action.
Timing Timing is likely the most important of the principles in this list when it comes to animation. There are no right answers when it comes to timing. Expertise in timing comes with experience and experimentation, if it comes at all. Exaggeration Exaggeration is the highlighting of movements beyond their natural state to call attention to what you want the user to focus on.
A tiny bit of exaggeration can give added life to an animation and actually make it look more realistic. Use good taste and common sense: exaggeration is not extreme distortion, but rather a slight distortion that gives emphasis without being so exaggerated as to be visibly distorted for your visitors.
Solid drawing The solid drawing principle includes the principles of drawing or coding forms that convey the illusion of three dimensions, with weight and solid form. In CSS, this includes using box shadows, gradients, and transforms, giving your content the illusion of being three-dimensional.
Appeal The appeal principle has to do with charisma, believability, and interest. The animation has to appeal to the mind as well as to the eye.
With CSS, we can create animations and transitions that improve and augment user experience. Animation can give the appearance of life to two-dimensional, lifeless objects and give understanding to objects that have no meaning. But with great power comes great responsibility. Unlike cartoons, timing in CSS means milliseconds, not frames. There is no magic value of milliseconds for the duration. Depending on the timing function, you may want to add a few milliseconds for the effect to feel natural.
Just ensure the animation is short enough for your site to feel responsive rather than slow. All your animations should feel related. If there is a mix and match of delays, timings, and timing functions, the animations may seem unrelated.
It is up to your designers to design animations that have purpose and style. Animation and Transition Considerations 5 www.
Most value changes seem instantaneous, taking less than 16 ms1 to render. Even if the changes takes longer, it is a single step from one value to the next. For example, when changing a background color on hover, the background changes from one color to the next, with no gradual transition. Transitions 7 www. But by adding the CSS transition property, the color change can be gradual. Because transitions are simply progressive enhancements, there is no reason to not use them today. The CSS transition properties can be used to animate CSS property values smoothly, following an acceleration curve, after an optional delay, from a previous value to a new value over a specified length of time.
CSS transitions let you decide which properties to animate, how long to wait before the animation starts, how long the transition should take, and how the transition will proceed. Sometimes you want instantaneous value changes. Though we used link colors as an example in the preceding section, link colors should change instantly on hover, informing sighted users an interaction is occurring and that the hovered content is a link.
Instantaneous value changes are often the best user experience. At other times, you might want to make a property value change more gradually, bringing attention to what is occurring.
This will likely not be web-compatible and will probably be reverted. With CSS transitions, you can make a drop-down menu appear slowly.
The menu changes from hidden to fully opaque and expanded. This is a common use for CSS transitions, which we will also explore later in this chapter.
Figure Transition initial, midtransition, and final state In this chapter, we cover the four transition properties and the transition shorthand that not only make our transition possible but very easy to implement.
Like the transition property, animation is a shorthand property for several others:. You first need to write the actual bouncing animation using keyframes and name it bouncing. Then you can use that animation by applying it to. I used the shorthand animation property, and included all options:. Before applying animations to HTML elements, you need to write animations using keyframes. Basically, keyframes are each intermediate step in an animation.
In this example, we will make the opacity of an element change when a user hovers or mouses over the element. This is a simple transition that can be triggered when we hover over the element. We can add more than one transition that will run at the same time. But the transition doesn't seem to be smooth, because we didn't define the duration of the transition or use any timing function. We can add more options like below examples from the MDN :.
Welcome to CSS Animation , and thank you for choosing this book. Wipe it Clean. And when applied correctly, they can not only give a sense of liveliness but also help greatly with navigation.
While the pseudo-class :hover has been used to generate rudimentary animations for years, extensions of CSS into the realm of animation were minimal until the late s decade. It also announced the implementation of both implicit and explicit animation through CSS in February It allows users to hover over objects and an animation will play.
One evolution with CSS3 was the ability to write behaviors for transitions and animations. Now their wish has come true. With CSS3 transitions you have the potential to alter the appearance and behavior of an element whenever a state change occurs, such as when it is hovered over, focused on, active, or targeted. Animations within CSS3 allow the appearance and behavior of an element to be altered in multiple keyframes. Transitions provide a change from one state to another, while animations can set multiple points of transition upon different keyframes.
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