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Lighting is at the heart of filmmaking. The image, the mood, and the visual impact of a film are, to a great extent, determined by the skill and sensitivity of the director of photography in using lighting. Motion Picture and Video Lighting explores technical, aesthetic, and practical aspects of lighting for film and video.
A short summary of this paper. Published by Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
Includes index. ISBN pbk. Video recording—Lighting. B76 Good lighting is eternal; the basic concepts of lighting have not changed since they were explored by Rembrandt, Caravaggio, and other masters. One factor will never change in motion picture, video, and HD production: time is always of the essence. Production costs money—usually a lot of money.
As a result, the ability to be fast is always as important as any other aspect of your performance. Ask any Director of Photography; he or she will tell you that the ability to achieve good results quickly is crucial to getting and keeping the job. Understanding the process is critical to being fast, but knowing the capabilities of the equipment and being well versed in how other people have done it before is also important.
On the set, we often tend to work intuitively. As you learn lighting, however, it is important for you to think carefully about what you are doing and why you are doing it.
As you work, others will be watching you: the director, the AD, the producer, your crew. Learning lighting is a life-long pursuit. Few people ever feel they know it all. For some pur- poses, it is still nearly perfect. Firelight is warm and glowing, associated in the mind with safety, heat, and protection from nature. It draws people toward it; they automatically arrange themselves into a circle at a comfortable conversational dis- tance.
It starts out bright and blazing, then gradually dims as the mood turns inward and eyes grow heavy; it fades away to darkness just about the time the audience is ready to go home. For the hunter returned from the hunt, the village shaman performing a ritual, or an elder recounting the story of the tribe, it was ideal. Classical Greek plays were performed at festivals, which ordinarily began at dawn and continued through most of the day. With little emphasis on costumes other than masks , staging, sets, or effects, the theater subsisted almost entirely on the power of the spoken word.
Even up to the time of Shakespeare and the Globe, daylight performances were the standard for the mass market. These indoor lighting for The Thread of Destiny and evening performances were lit with candles and torches, Staging as we know it today came of age with the great spectacles of Inigo Jones, the seventeenth-century British architect who produced elaborate festival pieces with sumptuous cos- tumes and sets.
Controllable Light Controllable, directional lighting for the theater is not a new idea. With such innovations French theater led the way in lighting during this period, but there was always a division of opinion in European drama between those who wanted simple illumination of the elaborate sets and drops and those who wanted to develop a more theatri- cal and expressive lighting art.
He foreshadowed the private thoughts of many a modern cinematographer when he stated, in , that the actors were secondary to the lighting. To this day there is no such thing as a true soft light in theater lighting. Laudably, Belasco gave Hartmann credit on the billboards for the shows.
They were widely used, particularly in high- intensity follow spots. Early Film Production With the advent of motion pictures in , the earli- est emulsions were so slow that nothing but daylight was powerful enough to get a decent exposure. Dickson co-creator of early motion picture technology , the Black Maria was not only open to the sky but could be rotated on a base to maintain orienta- tion to the sun. As the motion picture industry developed, early studios in New York City and Ft. Lee, New Jersey, were open to the sky as well, usually with huge skylights.
Some control was pos- sible, with muslins stretched under the skylights to provide diffusion of the light and control contrast. These were followed soon after by the introduction of arc lamps, which were adaptations of typical street lights of the time. Photo courtesy of Mole— Richardson Co. Tungsten lights were almost useless because of their large component of red. Carbon-arc spotlights were purchased from theater lighting companies such as Kliegl Brothers of New York whose name still survives in the term klieg lights.
Lenses were also Introduction of Tungsten Lighting slow; the result was that sets had to be lit to a very high lighting For years, cameramen looked longingly at the compact, level. Photo courtesy of Mole— versatile tungsten lamps that were then available called Richardson Co. The tungsten incandescent bulbs were as they are today heavily weighted in the red end of the spectrum. The new stock was compatible with tungsten incandescent sources, which offered many advantages, including reduced cost.
Studio management saw in the new technology an eco- nomical means by which set lighting could be accomplished by the push of a button. Even with the new carbons, arcs remained as they do to this day more labor-intensive and bulky. The drawback of incandescent lights was and still is that they are inherently far less powerful than carbon arcs.
What cinematographers yearned for was a light of even greater intensity, but with controllable beam spread and distribution. In , the introduction of the fresnel lens led to the development of lighting units that are almost indistin- guishable from those we use today.
The addition of the fresnel lens also made tungsten lamp in this case a them more controllable. Not only did they enormous. Photo courtesy of have the correct color balance, but the fact that Technicolor Mole—Richardson Co.
The Technicolor Era As with the advent of sound, Technicolor imposed severe restrictions on cinematographers. The precise engineering needs of the three-strip process made it necessary to impose rigid standards. Films of this period are distinguished by having two cameramen listed in the credits. As a result, the output of the lamp steadily decreased as the lamp burned; in addition, the color balance shifted as the bulb blackened.
A far more practical solution was the invention of the tungsten—halogen bulb in the early s. The result has been more compact lights baby babies, baby deuces and smaller lights, such as the popular Tweenie watt size. Photo courtesy of Kino Flo, Inc. Photos courtesy of Lite Panels, Inc. HMIs have changed the lighting business by allowing more powerful sources with less electrical input, which trans- lates into smaller generators and smaller cables.
The light output varies as the AC cycle goes up and down; as a result, the output of the light varies as well. A gas-discharge arc, the xenon is a cousin to the HMI and big brother to the xenon gas projector lamps used in theaters. A more recent development is LED panel lights, which are extremely compact and can be made very small; they have become very popular for applications such as car interiors and when it is important to hide lighting units throughout the set.
The his- tory of lighting is the story of adapting new technology and new techniques to the demands of art and visual storytell- ing. The same concerns still face us every day on the set, and we can draw on the rich experience of those who have gone before us. Just as a mechanic must know what his tools are capable of, we must understand the capacity of our resources in order to use them to their potential.
Fresnels With very few exceptions such as the Dedo light , most lights that have a lens use the fresnel lens. Tungsten Fresnels All tungsten fresnel lights are designated by their bulb size 2K, 5K, etc. The studio light is the full-size unit, while the baby is a smaller housing and lens, which takes advantage of the smaller bulbs in use today.
Their smaller size makes them popular for location work. The 10K and 20K For many years the 10K was the largest tungsten fresnel available; it is still widely used, but the larger 20K is increas- ingly dominant for the kinds of uses traditionally assigned to the 10K.
The 10K is volts in the United States and the 20K is volts. The Big Eye is a special light with a quality all its own. The 10,watt DTY bulb provides a fairly small source, while a the extremely large fresnel is a large radiator. The result is a sharp, hard light with real bite but with a wraparound quality that gives it a soft light quality on subjects close to the light. This is a characteristic of all big lights the 12K HMI and the brute arc as well , which gives them a distinctive quality impossible to imitate.
Note on large lights: Never burn a 10K, 20K, or a 5K pointing straight up. The lens blocks proper ventilation and the unit will overheat. Either condition will cause the bulb to fail, and overheating may crack the lens. The failure will cost somebody hundreds of dollars and put the light out of commission. Baby deuces are the more compact 2K fresnel units; they have the body of a 1K with a larger tray on the bottom to accommodate the FEY bulb.
They are also called baby juniors or BJs. The widely used name, , comes from the days before quartz halogen when the tungsten bulb was the most common. Most are now used with the 1K quartz bulb, but are still called s.
The baby 1K, also called a baby baby, is the small-size version.
These exposures are created sequentially and preserved for later processing and viewing as a motion picture. Capturing images with an electronic image sensor produces an electrical charge for each pixel in the image, which is electronically processed and stored in a video file for subsequent processing or display. Images captured with photographic emulsion result in a series of invisible latent images on the film stock, which are chemically " developed " into a visible image. The images on the film stock are projected for viewing the motion picture. Cinematography finds uses in many fields of science and business as well as for entertainment purposes and mass communication. In the s, three different solutions for moving images were invented on the concept of revolving drums and disks, the stroboscope by Simon von Stampfer in Austria, the phenakistoscope by Joseph Plateau in Belgium, and the zoetrope by William Horner in Britain.
Motion Picture and Video Lighting, Second Edition, is the indispensable guide to film and video lighting. Written by the author of the industry bible Cinematography.
Screenwriting looks at the foundation on which every great film is built—the script. Whether an original …. A terrific and timely book that makes a compelling case for fundamentally rethinking how your business …. This is the second edition of the best selling Python book in the world.
Film , also called motion picture or movie , series of still photographs on film, projected in rapid succession onto a screen by means of light. Because of the optical phenomenon known as persistence of vision , this gives the illusion of actual, smooth, and continuous movement. Film is a remarkably effective medium in conveying drama and especially in the evocation of emotion.
The Basics of Filmmaking is an introductory textbook tailored to the needs of beginning and intermediate film students and independent filmmakers that expertly guides you through the entirety of the craft, from screenwriting all the way through to editing, with detailed chapters covering each department involved in the filmmaking process. The book takes a behind-the-scenes look at every aspect of the filmmaking process: writing the screenplay and getting it critiqued by a professional , pre-production, cinematography, lighting, the shooting process, getting good audio, editing, and even going to a pitch meeting to sell it. It addresses the real fundamentals, the mechanics and the basic concepts of how to write, produce, direct, shoot, record, and edit your movie. Written by Blain Brown, a seasoned expert who has worked professionally as a cinematographer, screenwriter, director, producer, line producer, assistant director, gaffer, grip, and editor; this is a must have resource for any filmmaking student. Featuring an accompanying companion website with video examples of scene directing methods, continuity and coverage, working with the camera, lighting, audio, and editing, and downloadable production forms you can fill out and use for your projects. Sign up to our newsletter and receive discounts and inspiration for your next reading experience.
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MOTION PICTURE AND VIDEO LIGHTING This page intentionally left blank MOTION PICTURE AND VIDEO LIGHTING Second Edition Blain Brown Amsterdam.
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Lighting techniques are invaluable for filmmakers at every level. For a director, they can help you communicate with your cinematographer. For a writer, they can help you craft words on the page that set the tone, and for the rest of the jobs on set, you'll spend most of your time waiting for everyone to get the film lighting right. So don't you want to know some lighting techniques so you can help out? Here at No Film School, we're always trying to create handy guides to help beginning and experienced filmmakers achieve the look and feel they want for their projects.
Несмотря на субботу, в этом не было ничего необычного; Стратмор, который просил шифровальщиков отдыхать по субботам, сам работал, кажется, 365 дней в году.
Поразительно, - пробурчал он, - что сотрудникам лаборатории систем безопасности ничего об этом не известно. ГЛАВА 47 - Шифр ценой в миллиард долларов? - усмехнулась Мидж, столкнувшись с Бринкерхоффом в коридоре. - Ничего. - Клянусь, - сказал. Она смотрела на него с недоумением.
Повисло молчание. Казалось, эта туша собирается что-то сказать, но не может подобрать слов. Его нижняя губа на мгновение оттопырилась, но заговорил он не .
Она инстинктивно отпрянула назад, застигнутая врасплох тем, что увидела. Из-за решетчатой двери кухни на нее смотрели. И в тот же миг ей открылась ужасающая правда: Грег Хейл вовсе не заперт внизу - он здесь, в Третьем узле. Он успел выскользнуть до того, как Стратмор захлопнул крышку люка, и ему хватило сил самому открыть двери.
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