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Computer Networking Terms And Definitions Pdf

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Regardless of your role in an organization, this glossary of networking terms was compiled for everyone from the networking and wireless professional to the general end-user. Uncover knowledge areas in which you excel and where you want to expand.

Networking and Wireless Foundations Glossary of Terms

By using our site you agree to the privacy policy , terms of use , and use of cookies. Cybersecurity touches every part of an organization, and misconceptions around cybersecurity can put your company at risk. To help, we've compiled a list of definitions including some of the most commonly used security terms in the industry. This list of cyber "jargon busters" is designed to help you better understand the many cybersecurity terms you hear and see every day, including ones you'll find on this site.

It's important to understand, and be able to explain, different aspects of cybersecurity and how they affect your organization. The more you understand common cyber security terms and buzzwords, the better you can address the challenges and opportunities your organization encounters each day.

For more information on how we can help improve your overall security posture, visit our cybersecurity services page or contact us directly for a no-obligation consultation, to start the process.

Program code embedded in the contents of a web page. When the page is accessed by a web browser, the embedded code is automatically downloaded and executed on the user's workstation.

Java, ActiveX MS. An encryption standard being developed by NIST. Intended to specify an unclassified, publicly-disclosed, symmetric encryption algorithm. A set of mathematical rules logic for the process of encryption and decryption.

Through the use of an algorithm, information is made into meaningless cipher text and requires the use of a key to transform the data back into its original form. A security program that can run on a computer or mobile device and protects you by identifying and stopping the spread of malware on your system.

Anti-virus cannot detect all malware, so even if it is active, your system might still get infected. Anti-virus can also be used at the organizational level. For example, email servers may have anti-virus integrated with it to scan incoming or outgoing email. Sometimes anti-virus tools are called 'anti-malware', because these products are designed to defend against various types of malicious software.

A set of stealthy and continuous computer backing processes, often orchestrated by human s targeting a specific entity. APT usually targets nations or organizations for business or political motives. Auditing is the information gathering and analysis of assets to ensure such things as policy compliance and security from vulnerabilities.

The process of identifying an individual, usually based on a user name and password. Authentication usually requires something a person has such as a key, badge, or token , something a person knows such as a password, ID number, or mother's maiden name , or something a person is represented by a photo, fingerprint or retina scan, etc. When authentication requires two of those three things, it is considered strong authentication.

Authorization is the approval, permission, or empowerment for someone or something to do something. Availability is the need to ensure that the business purpose of the system can be met and that it is accessible to those who need to use it.

A design fault, planned or accidental, that allows an attacker access to the compromised system around any security mechanisms that are in place. A person of malicious intent who researches, develops, and uses techniques to defeat security measures and invade computer networks. When a Windows NT-based system encounters a serious error, the entire operating system halts and displays a screen with information regarding the error.

The name comes from the blue color of the error screen. Also known as a zombie, is an Internet-connected computer that has been infected and compromised by malicious code in order to use the computer for something other than what was intended.

A network of compromised computers that are infected with small bits of malicious code bots. They are frequently used by hackers for disreputable purposes, such as to launch denial of service attacks, or send messages like spam and malicious code without it being traceable. The attempt to gain access to a network using repeated guesses at passwords or data encryption keys. A Business Continuity Plan is the plan for emergency response, backup operations, and post-disaster recovery steps that will ensure the availability of critical resources and facilitate the continuity of operations in an emergency situation.

An electronic document attached to someone's public key by a trusted third party, which attests that the public key belongs to a legitimate owner and has not been compromised.

Certificates are intended to help you verify that a file or message actually comes from the entity it claims to come from. Certificate-Based Authentication is the use of security protocols and certificates to authenticate and encrypt web traffic. The result of encrypting either characters or bits using some algorithm. Cipher text is unreadable until it is decrypted.

An online crime that involves automating the act of clicking on a web link to perpetrate a fraud. In a classic click fraud scenario, a legitimate web site decides to advertise on another site, which hosts the ad. The legitimate web site agrees to pay the ad hosting site a few cents each time a potential customer clicks on the ad, which links back to the legitimate site.

Cheaters use automated tools to click the ad over and over, earning money from the legitimate site under false pretenses since the clicks do not come from actual people interested in the advertised products. A system entity that requests and uses a service provided by another system entity, called a "server.

A threat action that undesirably alters system operation by adversely modifying system functions or data. They are used to identify a user and could record personal information such as ID and password, mailing address, credit card number, and more.

A cookie is what enables your favorite web site to "recognize" you each time you revisit it. An attack performed through Web browsers, taking advantage of poorly-written Web applications. Cross-site scripting attacks can take many forms. One common form is for an attacker to trick a user into clicking on a specially-crafted, malicious hyperlink.

The link appears to lead to an innocent site, but the site is actually the attacker's, and includes embedded scripts. What the script does is up to the attacker; commonly, it collects data the victim might enter, such as a credit card number or password.

The art and science of encoding and decoding messages using mathematical algorithms that utilize a secret key. The concept has broadened to include managing messages that have some combination of: privacy by being unreadable to anyone but the sender and receiver ; integrity not modified while en route , and non-repudiation digitally signed in such a way that the originator cannot plausibly claim he or she did not originate it. A hidden neighborhood of the Internet, only accessible using non-standard protocols.

The darknet is a marketplace for illegal substances and arms, stolen data, and software used for hacking. It is also a meeting place for, among others, criminals and terrorists. Sites on the dark web are not indexed and do not appear on search engines. Hidden web real estate can and is used for good as well, such as protecting dissidents in repressive regimes. A breach for which it was confirmed that data was actually disclosed not just exposed to an unauthorized party.

A widely-used method of data encryption using a private secret key. There are 72,,,,, 72 quadrillion or more possible encryption keys that can be used.

For each given message, the key is chosen at random from among this enormous number of keys. Like other private key cryptographic methods, both the sender and the receiver must know and use the same private key. Refers to any outwardly-induced condition that prevents access to a computer resource rendering it unusable , thus "denying service" to an authorized or legitimate. A type of attack aimed at making the targeted system or network unusable, often by monopolizing system resources.

For example, in February a hacker directed thousands of requests to eBay's Web site. The network traffic flooded the available Internet connection so that no users could access eBay for a few hours.

It is analogous to a group of people crowding the entry door or gate to a shop or business, and not letting legitimate parties enter into the shop or business, disrupting normal operations. An attempt to guess a password by systematically trying every word in a dictionary as the password.

This attack is usually automated, using a dictionary of the hacker's choosing, which may include both ordinary words and jargon, names, and slang. An electronic identification of a person or thing, intended to verify to a recipient the integrity of data sent to them, and the identity of the sender.

Creating a digital signature involves elaborate mathematical techniques that the sender and recipient can both perform on the transmitted data. A strategy for making sure that end users do not send sensitive or critical information outside the corporate network. The term is also used to describe software products that help a network administrator control what data end users can transfer.

A partially-protected zone on a network, not fully exposed to the Internet, but at the same time, also not fully behind the firewall. This technique is typically used on parts of the network which must remain open to the public such as a Web server but must also access trusted resources such as a database. An Internet service that translates domain names into IP addresses. Because domain names are alphabetic, they're easier to remember. The Internet however, is based primarily on numerical IP addresses.

Therefore, every time you use a domain name e. These attacks exploit vulnerabilities in your web browser or its plugins when you simply surf to an attacker-controlled website. Some computer attackers set up their own malicious websites that are designed to automatically attack and exploit anyone that visits it. Other attackers compromise trusted websites such as ecommerce sites and deploy their exploit software there. Often these attacks occur without the victims realizing that they are under attack.

Data Mining is a technique used to analyze electronic information, usually with the intention of pursuing new avenues to pursue business. Defacement is the method of modifying the content of a website in such a way that it becomes "vandalized" or embarrassing to the website owner.

Defense In-Depth is the approach of using multiple layers of security to guard against failure of a single security component. An attack that tries all of the phrases or words in a dictionary, trying to crack a password or key.

An attachment to an electronic message used for security purposes. The most common use of a digital certificate is to verify that a user sending a message is who he or she claims to be, and to provide the receiver with the means to encode a reply. A Disaster Recovery Plan is the process of recovery of IT systems in the event of a disruption or disaster.

On the Internet, a domain consists of a set of network addresses. In a Windows NT environment, a domain is a set of network resources applications, printers, and so forth for a group of users. The user need only to log in to the domain to gain access to the resources, which may be located on a number of different servers in the network.

Domain hijacking is an attack by which an attacker takes over a domain by first blocking access to the domain's DNS server and then putting his own server up in its place.

A domain name locates an organization or other entity on the Internet.

An Introduction to Networking Terminology, Interfaces, and Protocols

A network can be of many types, like a telephone network, television network, computer network or even a people network. Similarly, a COMPUTER NETWORK is also a kind of setup, where it connects two or more devices to share a range of services and information in the form of e-mails and messages , databases , documents , web-sites , audios and videoes , Telephone calls and video conferences etc among them. A PROTOCOL is nothing but set of defined rules , which has to be followed by every connected devices across a network to communicate and share information among them. To facilitates End to End communication, a number of protocols worked together to form a Protocol Suites or Stacks. Some basic Protocols are:.

-A network can be defined as a group of computers and other devices connected in -Define the rules that govern the communications between two computers.

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Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. Help expand a public dataset of research that support the SDGs. Computer Networks is an international, archival journal providing a publication vehicle for complete coverage of all topics of interest to those involved in the computer communications networking area. The audience includes researchers, managers and operators of networks as well as designers and implementors

Computer Networking Terminology

A network consists of two or more computers that are linked in order to share resources such as printers and CDs , exchange files, or allow electronic communications. The computers on a network may be linked through cables, telephone lines, radio waves, satellites, or infrared light beams. It is generally limited to a geographic area such as a writing lab, school, or building. Computers connected to a network are broadly categorized as servers or workstations. Servers are generally not used by humans directly, but rather run continuously to provide "services" to the other computers and their human users on the network.

By using our site you agree to the privacy policy , terms of use , and use of cookies. Cybersecurity touches every part of an organization, and misconceptions around cybersecurity can put your company at risk. To help, we've compiled a list of definitions including some of the most commonly used security terms in the industry. This list of cyber "jargon busters" is designed to help you better understand the many cybersecurity terms you hear and see every day, including ones you'll find on this site. It's important to understand, and be able to explain, different aspects of cybersecurity and how they affect your organization.

It stands for Local Area Network and covers a small area such as a small office or home. It physically connects all the computers located in the premises. It is a computer network system that connects the computers of the world. It is a close room computer network system, as it covers a small area and only authorized people can access it. It is the service that is used on Internet to view and search contents in the form of web-pages. It is an online facility that facilitates us to chat or talk. It is a Protocol, which is used especially for voice transfer over IP network.

Get the latest tutorials on SysAdmin and open source topics. Hub for Good Supporting each other to make an impact. Write for DigitalOcean You get paid, we donate to tech non-profits. A basic understanding of networking is important for anyone managing a server. Not only is it essential for getting your services online and running smoothly, it also gives you the insight to diagnose problems.

Actively scan device characteristics for identification. Use precise geolocation data. Select personalised content. Create a personalised content profile. Measure ad performance.

В нем заключено все, что ассоциируется с представлением о молодой католичке: чистота, невинность, природная красота. Чистота заключена в буквальном значении имени - Капля Росы. В ушах зазвучал голос старого канадца. Капля Росы.

На его лекциях по этимологии яблоку негде было упасть, и он всегда надолго задерживался в аудитории, отвечая на нескончаемые вопросы. Он говорил авторитетно и увлеченно, не обращая внимания на восторженные взгляды студенток. Беккер был смуглым моложавым мужчиной тридцати пяти лет, крепкого сложения, с проницательным взглядом зеленых глаз и потрясающим чувством юмором. Волевой подбородок и правильные черты его лица казались Сьюзан высеченными из мрамора. При росте более ста восьмидесяти сантиметров он передвигался по корту куда быстрее университетских коллег.


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Key Words: Computer networks; glossary; telecommunications; teleprocessing; terminology; vocabulary. 1. INTRODUCTION. The purpose of this guide is to assist.

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identification and address for a computer or network device to connect and access the Internet. It is an identifying name for all wireless networks. Ethernet.

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Unit Vocabulary.