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Bone Marrow Structure And Function Pdf

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What Is Bone Marrow, and What Does It Do?

From birth to early adolescence, the majority of our bone marrow is red marrow. As we grow and mature, increasing amounts of red marrow are replaced by yellow marrow. Bone marrow is separated into a vascular section and non-vascular sections. The major function of bone marrow is to generate blood cells. Hematopoietic stem cells , found in red marrow, are responsible for the production of blood cells. Red bone marrow contains hematopoietic stem cells that produce two other types of stem cells: myeloid stem cells and lymphoid stem cells. These cells develop into red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets.

Bone Marrow

Bone marrow is found in the medullary cavities — the centres of bones. The bone marrow is where circulating blood cells are produced — a process known as haematopoiesis. Bone marrow undergoing haematopoiesis is coloured red due to the presence of red blood cells, whereas bone marrow that is not undergoing haematopoiesis is yellow. The red marrow consists of long trabeculae beam-like structures within a sponge-like reticular framework. Spaces around this framework are filled with fat cells, stromal fibroblasts and blood cell precursors.

Bone Marrow and Blood Cell Development

Bone tissue is continuously remodeled through the concerted actions of bone cells, which include bone resorption by osteoclasts and bone formation by osteoblasts, whereas osteocytes act as mechanosensors and orchestrators of the bone remodeling process. This process is under the control of local e. An imbalance between bone resorption and formation can result in bone diseases including osteoporosis.

Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones. In adult humans, bone marrow is primarily located in the ribs , vertebrae , sternum , and bones of the pelvis. Human marrow produces approximately billion blood cells per day, which join the systemic circulation via permeable vasculature sinusoids within the medullary cavity. Bone marrow transplants can be conducted to treat severe diseases of the bone marrow, including certain forms of cancer such as leukemia. Several types of stem cells are related to bone marrow.

Bone Marrow: Structure and Function

Bone marrow

This second article in a six-part series explains the primary and secondary lymphoid organs and their clinical significance and structure. This article is the second in a six-part series about the lymphatic system. It discusses the role of the lymphoid organs, which is to develop and provide immunity for the body. The primary lymphoid organs are the red bone marrow, in which blood and immune cells are produced, and the thymus, where T-lymphocytes mature. The lymph nodes and spleen are the major secondary lymphoid organs; they filter out pathogens and maintain the population of mature lymphocytes. Citation: Nigam Y, Knight J The lymphatic system 2: structure and function of the lymphoid organs.

Blood , fluid that transports oxygen and nutrients to the cells and carries away carbon dioxide and other waste products. Technically, blood is a transport liquid pumped by the heart or an equivalent structure to all parts of the body, after which it is returned to the heart to repeat the process. Blood is both a tissue and a fluid. It is a tissue because it is a collection of similar specialized cells that serve particular functions. These cells are suspended in a liquid matrix plasma , which makes the blood a fluid. If blood flow ceases, death will occur within minutes because of the effects of an unfavourable environment on highly susceptible cells.

Он ездил на белом лотосе с люком на крыше и звуковой системой с мощными динамиками. Кроме того, он был фанатом всевозможных прибамбасов, и его автомобиль стал своего рода витриной: он установил в нем компьютерную систему глобального позиционирования, замки, приводящиеся в действие голосом, пятиконечный подавитель радаров и сотовый телефонфакс, благодаря которому всегда мог принимать сообщения на автоответчик. На номерном знаке авто была надпись МЕГАБАЙТ в обрамлении сиреневой неоновой трубки. Ранняя юность Грега Хейла не была омрачена криминальными историями, поскольку он провел ее в Корпусе морской пехоты США, где и познакомился с компьютером. Он стал лучшим программистом корпуса, и перед ним замаячила перспектива отличной военной карьеры. Но за два дня до окончания третьего боевого дежурства в его будущем произошел резкий зигзаг.


Download the PDF to view the article, as well as its associated figures and tables. Abstract. This is a well-written, up-to-date, concise text of bone marrow.


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The bones of the skeletal system serve many important functions for the body, from giving your body support to allowing you to move.

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