File Name: highway material testing and quality control .zip
Highway engineering is the term that replaced the traditional term road engineering used in the past, after the introduction of modern highways. Highway engineering is a vast subject that involves planning, design, construction, maintenance and management of roads, bridges and tunnels for the safe and effective transportation of people and goods. Advancements in pavement materials, design, construction, maintenance and pavement management and the globalisation of the market make it imperative for the highway engineer to be aware of the techniques and standards applied globally.
Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Legnard Mashanda. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Due to economic growth and rapid development in Tanzania, the government has been boosting the road budget yearly, resulting in many road projects in the country at a time; hence, expanding job market for the local highway engineers.
However, competency in highway technology especially materials has been impeding most engineers from the market. As the roads construction boosted up in the country in 90's, most of the local highway engineers were still at colleges and universities for their studies, while the graduate engineers had no experience in highway engineering for lack of training sites. Therefore, the past few years of road constructions have been a transition period for most graduate engineers to acquire field experience.
However, Tanzanian is a large territory with variable geology and topography, therefore, the field of practice for a highway engineer is so broad to cover, otherwise the experience mounted up by most engineers might be of similar nature alike design standards, identical specifications, similar materials and environments , which does not build professionalism.
Despite the modern technological materials, the local highway and material engineers need enough time to master the country topography and geology before declaring their experiences. Kilimanjaro, Arusha and Mbeya and so on, instead of jumping into a complex design or applications of the imported materials that might be costly or environmentally non-compliant.
The material engineers should bear in mind that, the right judgment on materials quality comes through broad understanding of the materials behavior, rather than just comparing test results with the specification figures. In general, experience is not gained through specific syllabus, but through participating in several self-contained projects, maintaining self-discipline in doing physical works, having attitude of learning from nonprofessionals and professionals; and building self-confidence.
Bear in mind that, qualification is just a field of study, but professionalism comes through extensive experience. This Guide is intended therefore, to assist the material engineers and other quality control personnel e. It is giving important tips definitions, main points and illustrations and the outlined procedures for conducting basic tests at project level. It is therefore, a backing tool for the materials practitioners. IntroductionAlthough majority of the road failures are normally reported as outcome of traffic over-loading and environmental influences, distress investigations reveal that most of the road failures in Tanzania develop prematurely due to the use of substandard materials and poor construction techniques rather than overloading and environmental influences.
This brings views that, for a road project to achieve quality product that would fulfil the functional and structural requirement with high degree of confidence it must have appropriate and effective quality system, which screens out substandard materials and put a stop to poor construction techniques.
In order to be appropriate and effective, quality system should comprise the knowledgeable staff, proper testing plan and equipment. It should also focus on the materials quality before being used to a permanent work and monitor closely the processing and finishing techniques. Durability of pavement is not judged instantly by the appearance of final product, but is guaranteed by proper design, good quality of materials and proper construction techniques. Specifications alone are not enough to produce a durable road if quality of the applicable materials is not accurately revealed and cared for.
Quality control requires not only a good knowledge of materials characteristics, but also being confident in handling and testing the materials, correct interpretation of the test results, timely delivery of the test results and familiarity with the construction techniques. However there are many written books and standard specifications, which describe the characteristics of road construction materials, most of them are based on the European and American practices and environments.
Such books do not focus much on the Tanzanian materials, which may fail to meet the overseas specifications but perform satisfactorily in the local environments. Therefore, it is the responsibility of local engineers to write down their experiences on the performance of local materials and set the best practices of treating such materials. Sample handling Materials laboratoryChapter 2 Quality ControlQuality Control is a common terminology in most construction sites and is frequently used by the laboratory personnel; however, its meaning might not be clearly known by everyone.
The term contains two words, quality which means standards and control which means regulate or monitor. Therefore, Quality Control may be defined as the organized operations inspections, sampling and testing necessary for regulating or monitoring the work standards. The main objectives of quality control in a road project are;o To screen-out and prevent the use of substandard materials in the project by conducting preliminary and routine testing. Quality control takes account of materials properties beneficial and detrimental behaviour , application methods workmanship and the value of final product.
However, since materials testing and inspections are normally carried out by laboratory personnel with different levels of knowledge and experience, it is extremely important to have a standard system that controls and unifies the laboratory operations in order to ensure reliability of the test results. Principally, the main concern in quality control process is not just the test result recorded during testing, but truth of the result and its effect on the final product.
Therefore, quality control plan should not be limited to sampling procedure and testing methods only, but should also take personal knowledge into account, as well as the attitude and tactics of conducting field inspections and using the laboratory equipment to avoid erroneous results.
On the other hand, the quality control manager or engineer should prepare a regular calibration schedule for the laboratory equipment to retain their precision ; and ensure the personnel put into practice the laboratory principles to avoid injuries and damages to equipment.
Protective GearsSome basic principles to be obeyed when working in materials laboratory are Think before you do make right judgement before you take action. Use protective gears gloves, aprons, etc. Deal with hot materials or dangerous chemicals at a designated place, avoid hazardous environment. Do not litter waste materials or spill liquids on the floor may cause accident. Do not handle materials or equipment in a way that may cause accident or injury.
Ask for assistance in case of handling heavy objects. Do not switch on or work with electrical apparatus with wet hands. Do not use a device or machine that you do not know how to operate.
Follow the instruction manuals provided by the manufactures for operating the machines or other testing devices. Inspect the testing equipment before using it make sure that it is properly assembled and its parts are perfect.
Make sure the testing environment is free from congestion and interference from other operations e. Obey the nature of each device and use it for its intended use only do not overload machine or balance; or put plastic devices in oven, etc.
Make sure the testing machine is free and the power put 'off' after testing do not leave a machine 'on' or any weight on the balance. Put equipments in the right place after testing do not combine glassware or plastic apparatus with metallic equipment. Be clean and leave the laboratory tidy after testing. Aggregate MaterialsAggregates are broken pieces of stone, obtained by blasting and crushing a parent rock or stone boulders in a designated size; or by screening suitable gravels from natural sources.
However, coarse aggregates obtained from natural sources are sometimes polished or weathered due to formation and transportation modes. Therefore, natural sources may be ideal for fine aggregate natural sand than coarse aggregates. However Tanzania is a large territory with variable geology, aggregates produced in the country are mainly from granite and gneiss rocks in the upcountry regions, basalt in the volcanic regions and limestone in the coast regions.
Granite, gneiss and basalt are hard and strong enough to resist heavy loads, while limestone is porous and soft; hence, so weak to sustain heavy loads. Additionally, graded aggregate is used to improve the strength CBR of weak soils known as 'mechanical stabilization'. However, before being used in any mix, aggregate should be clean and strong enough to resist forces e. Soft aggregate e. Aggregate particles should have angular shape to form tight interlock and rough enough to produce frictional resistance in a mix.
Flaky or elongated aggregates should be avoided, as they break and do not pack tightly during compaction. For aggregate to produce adequate density and stability during compaction, it should contain a wide range of particle sizes from fine to coarse that can fill the mix matrix. Sample SplitterGrading Sieves GradingGrading test is also known as sieve analysis or particle size distribution. The test reveals the proportions of different particle sizes in a granular material e. A dry sample is passed on the sieves either without washing known as dry sieving or after soaking and washing the sample over 0.
Dry sieving is used for cohesionless non-plastic materials like sand and aggregate; while wet sieving is preferred for cohesive materials like soil and fillers. Some terms encountered in the grading test are;Sieve:-wire-cloth or square-mesh with apertures openings of definite dimensions nested on a brass or stainless steel frame. Quartering:-the process of obtaining a small representative quantity of sample by dividing a large quantity of material into quarters four nearly equal parts and combining the two opposite parts as shown below , then dividing the combined parts several rounds until a small representative quantity is obtained.
Riffling:-the process of obtaining a small representative quantity of sample by dividing a large quantity of material using a riffle box or sample splitter containing alternating slots , which divide the material into two equal parts. Then, one of the obtained two parts is poured again into the slots until the desired quantity is obtained. Test procedure: a Dry Sieving:1 Obtain a test sample by quartering or riffling the material. Note: Cumulative weights provide the percentage of particles retained on the sieves progressively, while individual weights provide the percentage retained on an individual sieve does not follow the sieve sequence.
The indices obtained in both tests reveal the dimensions of aggregate particles, as some particles are normally cubic while others are flaky or elongated. The test is carried out on the aggregate particles of different sizes from 6. Test procedure:1 Obtain the test sample by quartering or riffling the aggregate. Calculations b Elongation index EI Elongated particles are the particles whose lengths are more than 1.
It is carried out on the coarse particles from 6. Calculations Aggregate Crushing Value ACV Some aggregate particles resist crushing while some crush during rolling due to the effect of weathering process or micro-fractures developed by blasting or crushing operations. Crushing of aggregates during construction process affects the grading, density and strength of a mix or layer made with such aggregate.
To measure resistance of aggregate to crushing, the ACV test is carried out on the 14 mm aggregate fraction, by applying a KN force gradually over a period of 10 minutes. Test procedure:1 Obtain the required fraction by sieving the aggregate on 14mm and 10mm sieves. It is also conducted on the 14 mm fraction as for the ACV test, however, the TFV is preferred for weak aggregates in order to overcome the cushioning effect of excessive fines that might be produced by the ACV test.
The test is carried out on a dry or soaked aggregate sample. Test procedure:1 Sieve the aggregate on 14mm and 10mm sieves as for the ACV. It is commonly carried out on the 14 mm fraction; however, 20 mm or 10 The chosen fraction can be tested in a dry condition or soaked condition.
Test procedure:1 Obtain the required fraction by sieving aggregate on the specified sieves e. The applicable aggregate fractions are: Test procedure:1 Sieve the aggregates as per the above groups and wash them.
The effect is measured as the loss in aggregate weight after repetitive drying and soaking the aggregate in Sodium or Magnesium sulphate solution. The applicable sulphate solution is prepared as follows;Sodium sulphate solution: is made up of g of Sodium sulphate and 1 litre of water is supposed to have a specific gravity of 1. Magnesium sulphate solution: is made up of g of Magnesium sulphate and 1 litre of water is supposed to have a specific gravity of 1.
Test procedure:1 Obtain the sample by quartering or riffling a large quantity of aggregate. Repeat soaking and drying five times cycles.
Highway Material Testing Laboratory Manual By Ceg Download marx train repair manualpdf Download Repair manual and on manual sk khanna ceg justo highway On this page you can read or download Khanna And Justo Pdf in PDF format enggdoc highway material testing by khanna sk and justo ceg, khanna publisher, delhi highway. This manual deals with highway material testing procedures, placing an emphasis on the interpretation of results and relating these to practical applications This manual, besides serving as a basic textbook on highway material testing methods for students at the degree and diploma levels, would be of practical value for field engineers and testing laboratories The salient features of this. Download Book on Highway Engineering by SK Khanna CEG Justo PDF By Saad Iqbal June 08, Transportation contributes to the economic, industrial, social and cultural development of any country Transportation is vital for the economic development of any region since every commodity produced whether it is food, clothing, industrial products f medicine needs transport at all stages. Data and results of the test: All laboratory data shall be sub mitted in tabular form Observations relating to the behavior of the materials should be included All equations or formulas used should be clearly indicated Calculations should be properly checked The results of the test should be summarized in tabular or graphical form Discussion There should be included a brief discussion in. Home Product List. Highway Material Testing Laboratory Manual by Khanna material testing lab highway material testing laboratory manual by khanna and justo facilities, laboratory experiments conducted, and standard of SemesterEnd practical Highway materialsDesirable properties and testing of highway materials —subgrade soil, KhannaSK and JustoCEG, Highway Engineering, Nemchand and Bros Manual of tropical housing and building Part I — Climate.
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Download Civil Engineering handbook of Material testing Krishna May 9, Notes 12 Comments This is an important book for Civil engineers to learn various methods on how to test the quality of building materials on site and on lab as well. The materials used on the work shall meet all quality requirements of the contract. The Contractor shall notify the Engineer of the proposed sources of materials prior to delivery. At the option of the Engineer, materials may be approved at the source of supply before delivery is started.
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Request PDF | Highway Material Testing & Quality Control | This manual is one of a kind in that it deals with highway material testing procedures with an.