File Name: ethiopian coffee and tea development and marketing authority .zip
While full traceability has been difficult in recent history, new regulations have made direct purchasing possible.
Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. European Journal of Business and Management www. Box 19, Mechara, Ethiopia Abstract The study has been conducted in two coffee producing districts i. A multistage sampling technique was applied for this study.
Total sample size of households was interviewed and generated both qualitative and quantitative data on constraints and opportunities of coffee production.
Descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, frequency distribution and percentage, and an index score were used to analyze data. The study indicated that lack of improved coffee varieties recommended for the study area, diseases, pest, drought and low price were among major constraints of coffee production in the study area.
However, construction of rural road, proximate to Mechara Agricultural Research Center and availability of coffee plantation enterprise in the area were among major opportunities for coffee production. The study indicated that developing of improved coffee varieties, enhancing extension services to improve farmers' skill and knowledge on coffee production system, improving coffee marketing condition, and enhancing infrastructural and institutional facilities were among important factors to improve coffee production and productivity, and thereby improving livelihoods of coffee producers in the study area.
Keywords: Coffee landrace, coffee shade, coffee diseases and insect-pest, low price, market access 1. Introduction 1. Background and Justification Ethiopia is the origin of Coffee Arabica and the largest producer of coffee in Africa and the largest fifth coffee producer in the world GAIN, Coffee production is vital to Ethiopian economy with about 15 million people directly or indirectly deriving their livelihoods from it.
Even though the area allocated has increased by about ha or Coffee production in Ethiopia is constrained by lack of competitiveness, poor access to market, lack of infrastructure, in adequate access to services, low value addition, and in adequate technology transfer and research Jose, Another constraints of coffee production in Ethiopia is limited extension and research facilities World Bank, This is a key constraint that worsens the impact of risks such as pest and diseases outbreak.
Coffee trees can be left more vulnerable to outbreak of pests and diseases when a lack of effective extension results in weaker agricultural practices. In recent days, khat, a plant chewed by humans for its stimulating effect, is competing for farm land with coffee GAIN, , and Tolera and Gebermedin, Some small holder coffee farmers resorted to producing khat instead of coffee as they are increasingly attracted by the high prices and greater yield they get from cultivation of khat.
Khat is drought, diseases and pest resistant plant which can be harvested three to four times a year and generates better income for farmers than other cash crops including coffee. The Ethiopian coffee sector has bright prospects Jose, The country has suitable altitude, optimum temperature, low labor costs and fertile soil.
It can sustainably produce and supply fine specialty coffee with potential of producing all coffee types of the various world coffee growing origins. Another opportunities of coffee production in Ethiopia are; high national and international demand for the product, increasing interest of private sector with high investment potential, high support by both regional and federal governments Berhanu, The Ethiopian Coffee and Tea Development and Marketing Authority has been re-established as per the proclamation endorsed by the House of Peoples' Representatives on December , with a view to boosting the country's benefit from the sector Zelalem, The Authority has mandates and responsibilities; to strengthen modern extension services to attain higher level of production and increased productivity, to establish quality based effective and efficient marketing systems, and to support, supervise and regulating of coffee processing industries.
In Oromia National Regional State, , From top 25 coffee producing districts in Ethiopia, Oromia dominates with 18 coffee producing districts and the remaining top coffee producing districts are located in SNNP James et al.
Arsi Zone is one of the Oromia region's zones which has potential of coffee production. Coffee plantation enterprise is also found in Gololcha district which is one of the districts in the Arsi Zone. Gololcha district is 14th from top 25 coffee producing districts in Ethiopia and 7th from top 18 coffee producing districts in Oromia James et al. Therefore, assessing opportunities and constraints of coffee production was found to be vital in Arsi zone because it helps to develop appropriate technology and inform policy makers to understand the gap.
So far, no works have been done to assess the opportunities and constraints of coffee production in the study area. Objectives The main objective of this study was: To identify constraints and opportunities of coffee production and marketing in Arsi zone. Methodology 2. Description of the study area The study was conducted in two coffee production potential districts of Arsi zone namely, Gololcha and Chole. Golocha District Gololcha is located at about km from Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia and km from Asella, which is the capital town of Arsi zone.
The district found at an altitude ranging from and masl. Total population of the district is estimated to be , out of which , were males and 98, were females. The soil type of the district is silt soil and sandy soil. Major crops produced in the district are coffee, maize, sorghum, teff and groundnut. Chole District Chole district is located at km to the east of Addis Ababa and km from Asella, the capital of Arsi zone and found on an area of hectares.
Out of the total land area of the district about 21, hectares is cultivated land whereas and hectares are forest land and grazing land, respectively. The main rainy season of the district is bimodal and first rainy season was from March to June and the second is from July to September.
Source: Own computation from GIS data, 2. Sample Size and Sampling Technique The study employed multi-stage sampling method. Districts and kebeles were selected purposively in collaboration with zonal and district agricultural and natural resource management office based on coffee production potential. Accordingly, Gololcha and Chole districts were selected. Finally, 60 households from Gololcha district and 59 households from Chole district using proportional to population size and total of households were selected from the zone by simple random sampling method.
Data Sources and Method of Data Collection The study utilized both primary and secondary data sources. Primary data was collected from sample respondents by using structured interview schedule. A total of five enumerators were involved to conduct the survey. These enumerators were trained regarding the objectives of the study and particularly on the detailed contents of the questionnaire. The secondary data was also collected from unpublished documents of zonal and district agricultural and natural resource management offices.
An index score was also calculated and used to provide overall ranking of major coffee diseases, pest, marketing constraints and density of permanent coffee shade on farmers' coffee field. Results and Discussion In this chapter, the results of the study along with previous research findings are briefly presented and discussed as follows.
Demographic and socio-economic characteristics of sampled households Sex, education and marital status: Survey result indicated that Education is very important factor which helps farmers to understand and implement the information received from any direction.
Similarly, the study revealed that This indicated that majority of coffee producers in the study area are educated which in turn can help to boost production and productivity of coffee. The study also showed that Table 1. Sex, educational level and marital status of the sampled respondents. This indicated that most of the respondents were found in economically active age group. The family size of the sampled households was ranged from 2 to 18 with mean and standard deviation of 7.
Age The study indicated that average land holding size per household was 1. On average, 0. This indicated, the land allocated for coffee production exceeds the land allocated for chat production. However, according to farmers of the study area because of drought, diseases, pest and low price of coffee, it was being substituted by chat. Table 3.
Landholding size and their allocation status of the sampled households. Variables Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Total landholding size ha 0. Coffee was the major means of income generation for the majority of the respondent which was about Main occupation and major means of income generation of the respondents. Variable Frequency Percent Main occupation Crop production only 47 This indicated that farmers of the study area had more experience of coffee production.
The number of mother coffee trees owned was ranged from 50 to with mean Table 5. Experience in coffee production and number of coffee mother trees owned by respondents.
Variable Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation Years involved in coffee production 1 50 Coffee Production and its agronomic practices in the area From total sample households, But, majority of the respondent Types of coffee varieties used for coffee production in Arsi Zone Source: Own survey result, An increased access to improved quality seed is essential for farmers to enhance productivity Girma, But, the study on figure 1 revealed that This indicated that the availability of improved varieties and extension services on coffee technologies were very low which has hindered coffee production and productivity in the study area.
Similarly, studies conducted by GAIN argued that the major reason for low production of coffee in Ethiopia is inadequate use of improved seed technologies. Among those local coffee landraces, Next to Kubania landrace, Buna Gurracha was preferred.
Multistage sampling technique was employed to select the population for the study which involved both purposive and random sampling techniques. Data was collected through structured questionnaire administered to sampled farmers from coffee producing households. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the gathered and cleaned data. The study has identified three top constraints on coffee production. Low and fluctuating coffee price, coffee market information problem and lack of coffee seed and seedling varieties preferred were the major problems explored. Strengthening cooperatives and unions, sustainable supply of improved coffee seeds and seedlings, and sustainable coffee seed system are suggested to tackle coffee production problems. Most Cited Articles.
6th in the world. ▫ 1st coffee producing country in Africa. ▫ known for. ▫high quality. ▫organic coffee supplier to the world market.
Turkey expresses interest in investing in Ethiopia. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The National Bank of Ethiopia NBE gave direction to the Ministry of Agriculture to come up with a detail plan for the formation of an agricultural bank. Filled Application form; 2. Tag: Ministry of Agriculture.
He was among the first to build a washing station in the region. Due to recent changes in regulation, even the little guys can directly export their coffee to foreign markets.
The directive, which has been in the making for close to three months, came into effect at the end of February. According to Addis Fortune , on a daily basis a team at the Authority compares the international and local prices of coffee and uses a weighted average method to set the minimum prices for export. There are a lot of exporters who sell coffee at a lower price in the international market, according to Adugna Debela, Director-general of the Authority. Even though the volume of coffee production has been increasing, the foreign currency generated from its export has been decreasing and also the value of the coffee is losing face in the international market, according to Adugna. On the first day after the directive was enacted, 53 contracts were registered, which is lower than the average daily contracts registered on normal days. Days after the new pricing began, the Ethiopian Coffee Exporters Association had an evaluation meeting with the Authority to assess the effectiveness of the new system. A coffee exporter who has been in the industry for 15 years said that this is a big gamble by the government to lay this out as a solution for an inherent problem.
Он посмотрелся в зеркало. Вид был такой, будто он не переставая рыдал несколько дней подряд. Беккер вытер лицо рукавом пиджака, и тут его осенило. От волнений и переживаний он совсем забыл, где находится.
Все когда-то бывает в первый раз, - бесстрастно ответил Бринкерхофф. Она встретила эти слова с явным неодобрением. - Я все проверяю дважды. - Ну… ты знаешь, как они говорят о компьютерах. Когда их машины выдают полную чушь, они все равно на них молятся. Мидж повернулась к нему на своем стуле. - Это не смешно, Чед.
PDF | Coffee, Ethiopia's largest export crop is the backbone of the The Ethiopian Coffee and Tea Development and Marketing Authority has.
От водки у него появилось легкое головокружение. Сьюзан, подшучивая над ним, часто говорила, что напоить его не составляет никакого труда. Наполнив тяжелый хрустальный стакан водой из фонтанчика, Беккер сделал несколько жадных глотков, потянулся и расправил плечи, стараясь сбросить алкогольное оцепенение, после чего поставил стакан на столик и направился к выходу. Когда он проходил мимо лифта, дверцы открылись. В кабине стоял какой-то мужчина.
Под визг покрышек, в снопе искр Беккер резко свернул вправо и съехал с дороги. Колеса мотоцикла подпрыгнули, ударившись о бетонное ограждение, так что он едва сумел сохранить равновесие. Из-под колес взметнулся гравий. Мотоцикл начал подниматься по склону.
Остановившись, чтобы посмотреть на свое отражение в зеркале, он почувствовал, что за спиной у него возникла какая-то фигура. Он повернулся, но было уже поздно. Чьи-то стальные руки прижали его лицо к стеклу. Панк попытался высвободиться и повернуться.
The authority has been an important link in bridging the gap between the importer and Ethiopian coffee, tea and spices producer, exporter in the international trade scenario.