File Name: physical and chemical analysis of water .zip
Physical characteristics of water look at the temperature, color, taste, and odor of the water sample.
See the Latest Publications. Browse All Publications. Download PDF. Reviewed by Tom Scherer, Ph. These rules do not cover private wells. The owner of a private well is responsible for testing the water, interpreting the results and making necessary changes to the system. An unacceptable water sample may be based on bacterial analysis, chemical characteristics of the water such as chlorides, iron and hardness or physical characteristics such as odor, taste and color.
The following chart provides a quick overview of acceptable levels for drinking water. A more detailed explanation follows. A sterile container provided by the testing laboratory is required for a bacteria test. Check with the laboratory for sampling and timing instructions because samples must reach the lab within 36 hours.
Do not to rinse containers because most contain preservatives. If possible, bypass water treatment units, such as water softeners, reverse osmosis RO systems and iron removal systems, when collecting the sample. A second sample taken after the water has passed through the treatment equipment will help you determine if your equipment is functioning properly. Give special attention to contaminants that have tested high in the past or when concerns arise from health issues.
Use a clean plastic or glass container to collect a 1-quart sample. Containers previously used for bleach, soap or other substances will contaminate the water sample.
Rinse the container and lid three times with the water that will be tested. Laboratories recommend samples reach them within two weeks. A list of laboratories in North Dakota can be found on the last page of this publication, on the internet at www. To select a lab, consider convenience and services offered. Figures 1 and 2 are examples of water analyses reports.
The report will contain a list of contaminants for which the water was tested and the measured concentration of each. The report also may highlight any problems. The concentration is the amount of a given substance weight in a specific amount of water volume. Many compounds are measured in smaller concentrations, such as micrograms per liter or parts per billion ppb. Some contaminants have units that are specific to the test and others are expressed as an index number and not in terms of concentration, and therefore have no units.
An online water quality interpretation tool has been developed to assist you in evaluating your drinking, livestock and irrigation water quality test reports. Instructions on how to use the interpretive tool are on the website. After you enter the numbers from your water test report, the tool will provide guidelines for acceptable or unacceptable concentrations. All water has some form of bacteria in it. The presence of bacteria does not mean the water is unsafe to drink.
Only disease-causing bacteria known as pathogens lead to disease. Your test results should include total coliform bacteria. Total coliform bacteria are a group of several kinds of bacteria commonly found in the environment, including soil, vegetation and untreated surface water.
They also are found in the intestinal tract of warm-blooded animals, including humans. A laboratory commonly will report the bacteriological test as positive or negative, indicating the presence or absence of total coliform bacteria. A negative total coliform bacteria result means the water is safe for human consumption from a bacteriological standpoint. A positive total coliform test would indicate unsanitary conditions and the possible presence of disease-causing organisms.
Further testing should include the subgroup fecal coliform and its subgroup, Escherichia coli E. A positive fecal coliform would indicate possible recent sewage or animal waste contamination. These outbreaks are caused by a specific strain of E. A positive E. However, it does indicate recent fecal contamination, which should be interpreted as an indication of a greater risk that pathogens are present.
Disease-causing microbes pathogens in these wastes can cause diarrhea, cramps, nausea, headaches or other symptoms. These pathogens may pose a special health risk for infants, young children and people with severely compromised immune systems. Shock chlorination should be performed on a well that reports a positive E. For instructions on chlorination, watch this Shock Chlorination of a Private Well video.
Alkalinity is a measure of the capacity of water to neutralize acids. The predominant chemicals present in natural waters are carbonates, bicarbonates and hydroxides. The bicarbonate ion is usually prevalent. However, the ratio of these ions is a function of pH, mineral composition, temperature and ionic strength. Water may have a low alkalinity rating but a relatively high pH or vice versa, so alkalinity alone is not of major importance as a measure of water quality.
Alkalinity is not considered detrimental to humans but generally is associated with high pH values, hardness and excessive dissolved solids. High-alkalinity waters also may have a distinctly flat, unpleasant taste. Treatment is an ion exchange via the addition of a tank media or reverse osmosis. Arsenic is a semimetalic element that is odorless and tasteless. It enters drinking water supplies from natural deposits in the earth, or from agricultural and industrial practices.
According to the EPA, long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water is linked to cancer of the bladder, lungs, skin, kidneys, nasal passages, liver and prostate. Noncancerous effects of ingesting arsenic include cardiovascular, pulmonary, immunological, neurological and endocrinal for example, diabetes problems. Treatment depends on the level of contamination.
Typical recommendations include the addition of an anion filter or tank media. Calcium and magnesium are the main contributors to water hardness.
When water is heated, calcium breaks down and precipitates out of the solution, forming scale. Maximum limits have not been established for calcium. Treatment for calcium is softening tank media and reverse osmosis. Magnesium levels can be controlled through distillation. High concentrations of chloride ions can cause water to have an objectionable salty taste and corrode hot-water plumbing systems. High-chloride waters have a laxative effect for some people.
An increase in the normal chloride content of water may indicate possible pollution from human sewage, animal manure or industrial wastes.
Color may indicate dissolved organic material, inadequate treatment and high disinfectant demand, and may indicate the potential for the production of excessive amounts of disinfectant byproducts.
Inorganic contaminants, such as metals, are also common causes of color. In general, the point of consumer complaint is variable, ranging from 5 to 30 color units, although most people find color objectionable in excess of 10 color units. Other contaminants that may be related to change in water color include aluminum, copper, foaming agents, iron, manganese and total dissolved solids. Treatment is reverse osmosis. Conductivity is a measure of the conductance of an electric current in water.
This is an easy measurement to make and relates closely to the total dissolved solids mineral content of water. The maximum contaminant level MCL is 0. Treatment with reverse osmosis is effective for drinking water purposes.
Fluoride concentrations of 0. However, excessive levels more than 1. This occurs only in developing teeth before they push through. Elevated fluoride levels also may cause skeletal damage and bone disease. Because low levels of fluoride are common in groundwater, most municipalities add fluoride to the water.
Iron in concentrations greater than 0. A metallic taste also may be present, and it may affect the taste of beverages made from the water. High concentrations of iron and manganese do not appear to present a health hazard. Treatment includes a water softener or iron filter for iron and reverse osmosis for manganese. Refer to the list of publications at the end of this page for more information on softening, and iron and manganese removal.
The results reported for nitrates can be confusing because they may be reported as nitrogen N or nitrate-nitrogen or as nitrate NO3. The following are the maximum levels for each:. Adults can drink water with considerably higher concentrations than infants without adverse effects.
The pH of water is a measure of acidity or alkalinity. The pH is a logarithmic scale based on a measure of the free hydrogen ions in the water. The scale runs from 0 to 14, where 7 is considered neutral, 0 to 7 is acidic and 7 to 14 is alkaline.
Because pH can be affected by dissolved minerals and chemicals, it is an important indicator of the change in water chemistry. According to the U. Environmental Protection Agency, drinking water with a pH between 6. Several public water supplies that use the Missouri, James or Red River as their source of water have to maintain the pH above 9 keep them in compliance with the Lead and Copper rule of the Safe Drinking Water Act, which details how to prevent leaching of these elements from piping systems.
See the Latest Publications. Browse All Publications. Download PDF. Reviewed by Tom Scherer, Ph. These rules do not cover private wells. The owner of a private well is responsible for testing the water, interpreting the results and making necessary changes to the system.
Homayoonfard, N. Ali, M. Rehan, Y.
Water quality refers to the chemical , physical , and biological characteristics of water based on the standards of its usage. The most common standards used to monitor and assess water quality convey the health of ecosystems , safety of human contact, and condition of drinking water. Water quality has a significant impact on water supply and oftentimes determines supply options.
This study was undertaken to analyse processed bottled water for drinking water quality. Altogether 50 water samples of different brands were randomly collected from public places in Kathmandu valley. The samples were analysed for physical turbidity, pH and electrical conductivity , chemical iron, manganese, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, ammonia, fluoride, chloride, sulphate, copper, total hardness, calcium, mercury and aluminum and microbiological fecal coliform and total coliform parameters. Chemical parameters analysed for fluoride 0. The range of fluoride estimated was 0.
The chemical characteristics of the waters of Lake Budi IX Region, Chile , in winter and summer were analysed in order to establish seasonal variations and determine their influence on the various phytoplankton components. On the basis of the results it was possible to indicate that the chemical parameters found in the water body under examination vary in time and space, giving rise to different algal communities. The strong influence of salinity on the phytoplankton communities in both study periods appears to result principally from the influence of the sea, resulting from the intrusion of salt water during certain periods of the year.
Faiza Tawati 1 , Yenny Risjani 2 , M. All Rights Reserved. Changes in the chemical and physical properties of water are one of the causes of water pollution. These changes are also an indicator of water quality. The purpose of this study is to analyze water quality in the Sumber Maron River located in Kepanjen, Malang.
Microbial, physical and chemical properties of irrigation water in rice fields of Southern Brazil. RECHE 1. SAUL 1. VERA R. FIUZA 1. This paper presents the results of the statistical analysis of microbiological, physical and chemical parameters related to the quality of the water used in rice fields in Southern Brazil. Data were collected during three consecutive crop years, within structure of a comprehensive monitoring program.
Тогда почему бы не вызвать службу безопасности, которая могла бы его задержать. - Пока рано, - сказал Стратмор. - Если служба безопасности обнаружит затянувшуюся надолго работу ТРАНСТЕКСТА, перед нами возникнет целый ряд новых проблем. Я хочу уничтожить все следы Цифровой крепости до того, как мы откроем двери. Сьюзан неохотно кивнула. План неплохой. Когда служба безопасности извлечет Хейла из подсобного помещения и обвинит в убийстве Чатрукьяна, он скорее всего попытается шантажировать их обнародованием информации о Цифровой крепости.
Так в чем же проблема, Фил? - спросил Стратмор, открывая холодильник. - Может, чего-нибудь выпьешь.
Он проявил редкую наблюдательность. - Но ведь вы ищете ключ к шифру, а не ювелирное изделие. - Конечно. Но я думаю, что одно с другим может быть связано самым непосредственным образом. Сьюзан отказывалась его понимать.
- Бринкерхофф посмотрел на нее осуждающе. - Дай парню передохнуть. Ни для кого не было секретом, что Мидж Милкен недолюбливала Тревора Стратмора.
Люди на подиуме не отрываясь смотрели на экран. Агент Смит начал доклад. - По вашему приказу, директор, - говорил он, - мы провели в Севилье два дня, выслеживая мистера Энсея Танкадо. - Расскажите, как он погиб, - нетерпеливо сказал Фонтейн.
И Сьюзан принялась объяснять, как Хейл отозвал Следопыта и как она обнаружила электронную почту Танкадо, отправленную на адрес Хейла. Снова воцарилось молчание. Стратмор покачал головой, отказываясь верить тому, что услышал.