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Even the descriptive analysis of spectra in terms of series and term values the systematic botany of spectra has a history of some sixty years.
It is only, however, since Bohr's explanation of the hydrogen spectrum in , and still more since his further work in explaining the structure of the periodic table of the elements, that any fundamental theory of atomic spectra has been available, or any rapid advance in observation or systematics has been made. Indeed no such advance was previously feasible, even on the experimental side, for the experimenter did not know what to look for. The field of atomic spectra provides in fact a perfect example of the way in which experiment and theory can react fruitfully on each other, yielding advances in our understanding of the field at a rate which could scarcely have been anticipated even by the most optimistic.
Since the advance has been so rapid that it is fair to say, as Condon and Shortley do in their introduction, that the interpretation of atomic spectra is now finished in broad outline.
All known features of atomic spectra have been at least semi-quantita-tively explained in terms of the nuclear atom, strictly according to the laws of quantum mechanics. The period of fruitful research in atomic spectra is not thereby closed, for there remain many important details to be elucidated further, and the proper relativistic theory of the many-electron system to formulate.
None the less an epoch is ended. By Prof. International Series in Physics. Condon Dr. Cambridge: At the University Press, Reprints and Permissions. Nature , — Download citation. Issue Date : 26 September By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.
Advanced search. Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily. Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature. Abstract THE experimental study of atomic spectra has a long and distinguished history.
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Sellin, Ivan A. Last reviewed: October The arrangement of the constituents of an atom and the manner in which they interact to form a system the atomic structure , and the patterns of light frequencies emitted and absorbed by atoms, whereby this atomic structure may be elucidated the atomic spectra. Atoms are composed of particles known as protons and neutrons clustered together in a positively charged nucleus, surrounded by negatively charged particles known as electrons Fig. This structure, as well as its attendant physical properties, has been borne out through theoretical and experimental advances going back more than two centuries. In particular, the measurement of spectra from atoms has enabled the characterization of these fundamental units of matter.
Atomic Spectra compiles papers on the highlighted developments in the atomic spectra. This book discusses regularities in spectra emitted by monatomic gases that lead to an understanding of the structure of atoms and discovery of the principles that govern the behavior of matter on the atomic scale. Papers dealing with the spectra of atoms with more than two electrons in the valence shell and continuous spectra of atoms are not included. This publication is useful to students intending to gain knowledge on the atomic spectra. We are always looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier.
Ever since the discovery of spectral analysis, no doubt was possible that the language of the atom could be understood if we learned how to interpret atomic.
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The photoelectric effect provided indisputable evidence for the existence of the photon and thus the particle-like behavior of electromagnetic radiation. However, more direct evidence was needed to verify the quantized nature of energy in all matter. In this section, we describe how observation of the interaction of atoms with visible light provided this evidence. Although objects at high temperature emit a continuous spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, a different kind of spectrum is observed when pure samples of individual elements are heated.
Structure of Matter pp Cite as. The tremendous amount of spectroscopic data accumulated during the past 60 years seemed at first to be too diverse and too complex to be disentangled. Seven years of X-ray spectroscopy have contributed more to a clarification, because here the problem of the atom is attacked at its root and the interior of the atom is revealed. For all times, the theory of spectral lines will bear the name of Bohr. Yet another name will be permanently linked with his, the name of Planck. All integral laws of spectral lines and atomistics are basically consequences of the quantum theory. This is the mysterious organ on which nature plays her music of the spectra and according to whose rhythms the structure of the atom and the nucleus are arranged.
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Spectra and Atomic Structure constitutes the first paWfcf a more comprehensive course the same electron configuration (pdf) is considerable. These and other.