File Name: curriculum concepts nature and purposes .zip
Introduction The concept of curriculum is as dynamic as the changes that occur in society. In its narrow sense, curriculum is viewed merely as a listing of subject to be taught in school.
When considering all of the types of curriculum what are the different definitions? When I asked my students what curriculum means to them, they always indicated that it means the overt or written curriculum — thinking of a curriculum manual with goals and objectives, or their textbooks. Obviously the answer to this question is subject to interpretation.
In my dealings with teachers, school leaders and policy actors, I am often struck by the need for education professionals to develop more nuanced concept maps relating to the curriculum. Curriculum is a contested and often misunderstood concept. At a simple level, the curriculum simply means a course of study. The word is derived from the Latin word meaning racecourse or race, and has come to mean a general course, conveying the notion of going somewhere in a predefined direction.
Indeed, this simple definition is one that is current in many schools, where the curriculum is seen largely as the glossy booklets that contain the content to be taught. A more sophisticated definition is required, and there have been many attempts to provide one.
For example, a Dictionary of Education Rowntree, offers the following definition:. Some people use the term to refer simply to the content of what is being taught. Such definitions are helpful in that they provide a broad conception of the education that occurs in schools.
However, this sort of broad definition can also be confusing, as the term curriculum comes to mean different things to different people. For these reasons, it is necessary to be clear about the various facets that make up the curriculum, and the ways in which these facets link together and interact in practice. The following terminology helps to make sense of the complexity that is the curriculum. The relationship between these elements is complex and can be problematic.
I provide several examples to illustrate this point:. Curriculum planning is fundamentally a political process. In other words, it involves questions of value and is subject to disagreement. Different people have different views about what should be taught or indeed omitted — the null curriculum. Others suggest that there are bodies of knowledge that have intrinsic value, and which should be taught to all children.
For example, social realists such as Young and Muller believe that children will be disadvantaged if they are not taught knowledge from the academic disciplines which are recognised bodies of knowledge developed over generations by scholars using rigorous methods. These current debates are often reduced to spurious categories: traditional vs. It is far more fruitful to consider these dichotomies in a more nuanced way, for example:. This in turn raises further questions about the choice and organisation of curriculum content.
Should the curriculum be structured around subjects the prevailing secondary model in Scotland or themes a primary school approach? Or is this a false dichotomy? Should there be a core curriculum for all young people, or should there be choice? What about relevance to real life? Or is the school curriculum a sabre-tooth curriculum Peddiwell, , which rarely changes and drifts out of date as society evolves?
Curriculum policy is sometimes referred to as the prescribed curriculum. In most cases, the written curriculum is an instrument of control.
Written curricula are essential, but they do not always reflect what is taught. At the level of practice the terms described curriculum, enacted curriculum and received curriculum are sometimes used. The first two terms comprise the taught curriculum — what teachers say they teach, and what they are actually observed to teach.
It is the most important curriculum of all; but it is also the one which is most difficult to quantify, and the one over which we have the least control. The described, enacted and received curricula can be very different to the prescribed curriculum, as teachers actively adapt official policy to meet local circumstances, and as learners assimilate and understand what is being taught in very different ways.
As can be seen, curriculum is an inexact art form rather than a precise science. A final point to consider concerns what is known as the hidden curriculum. Virtually everything that happens in schools that is not subject to reflection and intention can be seen as part of the hidden curriculum. The hidden curriculum of any institution is made up of:. With the above in mind, I offer an alternative definition of curriculum: the multi-layered social practices, including infrastructure, pedagogy and assessment, through which education is structured, enacted and evaluated.
This requires attention to:. Over the last 30 years, curriculum has become a key political issue, as governments around the world have increasingly tried to control what is taught and learned in schools. Arguably this has been unsuccessful, with classroom teaching remaining today much as it was in the past; single teacher delivery, teacher centred methods and passive learners Elmore, There are a number of distinct approaches — or more accurately starting points — to curriculum planning.
It is necessary to be clear on which model is being used to ensure coherence and conceptual clarity. Kelly offers three archetypal curriculum planning models and suggests that each model is inextricably linked with both underlying purposes and conceptions of knowledge, as well as with pedagogy.
It is necessary to stress again that these models represent starting points for curriculum planning, rather than mutually exclusive categories; for example, supporters of the process model, would not argue that content is unnecessary or unimportant, simply that the selection of content is a secondary consideration, to be debated once the broad principles of the curriculum have been established.
There have been systematic attempts to justify curriculum planning based upon choice of content. These can be broadly categorised as philosophical and cultural variants of the content model. In the s and s the philosophical work of R. Peters and Paul Hirst dominated thinking in the UK about the nature and structure of the curriculum. Being educated, according to this model, requires initiation into the various forms of knowledge, each of which has their own central organising concepts and characteristic methods of investigation that had been developed over time.
Drawing on this work, social realists e. Young and Muller, have recently suggested that there is a distinction between disciplinary knowledge and everyday knowledge. They suggest that the former should form the basis for the school curriculum, and that the latter is not a matter for schools. An alternative approach to rationalising choice of content derives from a concern to ensure that the curriculum reflects the culture of society.
Denis Lawton, who was influential in policy debate in the UK during the s and s Lawton, , has suggested that cultural analysis is the starting point for curriculum planning, rather than the analysis of knowledge.
According to Lawton, it is necessary to sub-divide culture in a way which is manageable yet meaningful; to achieve this he posited a set of nine cultural invariants — categories or systems that he claimed are universal to all societies.
These are the socio-political, economic, communications, rationality, technology, morality, belief, aesthetic, and maturation systems. At the level of policy, however, selection of content tends to be based upon more mundane considerations. Kelly has demonstrated that much selection is done for political ends, what he refers to as instrumental selection.
Goodson suggests that content is often proposed in the face of moral panic about national decline. Goodson and Marsh have documented the ways in which school subjects evolve through various stages to become unquestioned components of the curriculum — fundamentally a socio-political process of turf wars and struggle over resources. Often such selection simply reflects tradition the subject has always been taught in such a fashion or is made for pragmatic reasons for instance the availability of resources.
A second archetype identified by Kelly is the objectives or outcomes model. Objectives and outcomes are clear statements which seek to define what students know or can do as a result of their education. This model has a long and somewhat controversial history, particularly in the USA, with roots in scientific management and behaviourist psychology.
In the UK, objectives became a fundamental part of vocational Education and Training. Many educationists have criticised attempts to define the developmental process of education in the form of rigid and predefined objectives. Stenhouse saw objectives-based curricula as being too narrow in focus, too teacher-centred and insufficiently sensitive to the complexities of learning and the dynamics of the classroom.
Predefinition of objectives is said to deny the validity of the original experience that children bring with them to the classroom, increase the difficulties involved in local curriculum planning, and may assume that the norms of present day society are fixed.
Kelly has noted the tendency for many modern curricula to conflate the content and objectives models, specifying content as objectives. Kelly refers to such conflation as the mastery model of curriculum. The process model of curriculum is designed to be flexible and open-ended, rather than pre-determined, maximising the potential for growth and development.
Process curricula are based upon intrinsic principles and procedures rather than upon extrinsic objectives. Typically, they are predicated around a view of what an autonomous adult should become as a result of their education and a learning process often dialogical, inquiry-based and experiential that helps achieve this state.
According to Kelly , a process curriculum is fundamentally a curriculum based upon democratic values, comprising a set of structured activities enabling students to practise citizenship, to develop the capacity to question critically. Typically, teachers using the process approach will discuss and make sense of the core concepts or big ideas of education the broad goals or purposes and develop fit-for-purpose practices content and pedagogy to realise them.
However, Stenhouse acknowledged two important caveats in relation to the process model. First, much depends on the quality of the teacher:. The above discussion suggests that the school curriculum is complex, involving considerations of how policy translates into practice and considerable variation in how this happens from school to school.
The process of planning and implementing a curriculum is therefore difficult and uncertain. A successful curriculum must pay attention to underlying purposes of education. How, for example does it ensure that young people are socialised into society, while avoiding indoctrination and developing individual capacity for active citizenship? How does it make sure that young people develop skills for work without becoming too focused on narrow training? How does it cover essential content, given that this changes as society changes, without becoming overcrowded?
How can it remain relevant in a pluralist society where there are competing demands for different content and differing views as to what is important? Where do decisions about content lie?
With the teacher? The politician? Or students? How does it set the scene for learning that is active and teaching that is inspirational? Elmore, R. Goodson, I. Hirst, P. Education, knowledge and practices. White eds. Essays in honour of Paul Hirst London, Routledge. Kelly, A. Lawton, D.
The term curriculum refers to the lessons and academic content taught in a school or in a specific course or program. In dictionaries, curriculum is often defined as the courses offered by a school, but it is rarely used in such a general sense in schools. In many cases, teachers develop their own curricula, often refining and improving them over years, although it is also common for teachers to adapt lessons and syllabi created by other teachers, use curriculum templates and guides to structure their lessons and courses, or purchase prepackaged curricula from individuals and companies. In some cases, schools purchase comprehensive, multigrade curriculum packages—often in a particular subject area, such as mathematics—that teachers are required to use or follow. Generally speaking, curriculum takes many different forms in schools—too many to comprehensively catalog here. It is important to note that while curriculum encompasses a wide variety of potential educational and instructional practices, educators often have a very precise, technical meaning in mind when they use the term.
In my dealings with teachers, school leaders and policy actors, I am often struck by the need for education professionals to develop more nuanced concept maps relating to the curriculum. Curriculum is a contested and often misunderstood concept. At a simple level, the curriculum simply means a course of study. The word is derived from the Latin word meaning racecourse or race, and has come to mean a general course, conveying the notion of going somewhere in a predefined direction. Indeed, this simple definition is one that is current in many schools, where the curriculum is seen largely as the glossy booklets that contain the content to be taught. A more sophisticated definition is required, and there have been many attempts to provide one. For example, a Dictionary of Education Rowntree, offers the following definition:.
One might fulfill all of the College's degree requirements and yet fail to get a good education. It would also be possible to acquire a good education but neglect to fulfill the degree requirements. Now, we certainly do want you to fulfill all of the degree requirements, and we will work with you to see that this happens. But you are not here fundamentally for the purpose of completing degree requirements.
Embed Size px x x x x BilbaoCurriculum: Concepts, Nature and Purposes. Curriculum from Different Points of ViewThere are many definitions of curriculum. Because of this, the concept of curriculum is sometimes characterized as fragmentary, elusive and confusing.
Curriculum development need and importance is a topic that comes under the paper Knowledge and Curriculum for B.
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Сейчас переключит. Мне не успеть. Но когда шестерни разомкнулись, чтобы включилась другая их пара, автобус слегка притормозил, и Беккер прыгнул. Шестерни сцепились, и как раз в этот момент его пальцы схватились за дверную ручку. Руку чуть не вырвало из плечевого сустава, когда двигатель набрал полную мощность, буквально вбросив его на ступеньки. Беккер грохнулся на пол возле двери.
- Я поняла это, сделав пробу системных функций. Мы выделили отдаваемые им команды - смотрите. Смотрите, на что он нацелен. Шеф систем безопасности прочитал текст и схватился за поручень. - О Боже, - прошептал. - Ну и мерзавец этот Танкадо. ГЛАВА 110 Невидящими глазами Джабба смотрел на распечатку, которую ему вручила Соши.
pdf - Curriculum Introduction The concept of curriculum is as dynamic as the changes that occur in society. In a broader sense, it refers to the total learning experiences of individuals not only in schools but in society as well.
Клушар, похоже, не расслышал. Глаза его отсутствующе смотрели в пространство. - Странное дело, ей-богу, все эти буквы - ни на один язык не похоже. - Может быть, японский? - предположил Беккер. - Определенно .
Просто неформальная дипломатическая любезность, - солгал. - Дипломатическая любезность? - изумился старик. - Да, сэр. Уверен, что человеку вашего положения хорошо известно, что канадское правительство делает все для защиты соотечественников от неприятностей, которые случаются с ними в этих… э-э… скажем так, не самых передовых странах. Тонкие губы Клушара изогнулись в понимающей улыбке. - Да, да, конечно… очень приятно.
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Broadly speaking, curriculum is defined as the total learning experiences of the individual. This definition is anchored on John Dewey's definition of experience.Lain M. 07.05.2021 at 16:31
A Socio, Phil B.Pabtediscamb 10.05.2021 at 12:32
Curriculum: Concepts, Nature and Purposes Lesson 1 Concepts, Nature and Purposes of What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? b.Katharina D. 12.05.2021 at 08:19
Curriculum Concepts, Nature and Purposes - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation .ppt /.pptx), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view presentation slides.Elenio B. 13.05.2021 at 00:47
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