File Name: humane society in ethics and politics bertrand russell .zip
Russell remains famous as a logician, a metaphysician, and as a philosopher of mathematics, but in his own day he was also notorious for his social and political opinions. He wrote an immense amount about practical ethics—women's rights, marriage and morals, war and peace, and the vexed question of whether socialists should smoke good cigars.
In the early 20th century, Russell led the British "revolt against idealism ". He is widely held to be one of the 20th century's premier logicians. Whitehead he wrote Principia Mathematica , an attempt to create a logical basis for mathematics, the quintessential work of classical logic.
His philosophical essay " On Denoting " has been considered a " paradigm of philosophy". Russell was a prominent anti-war activist , championed anti-imperialism , and chaired the India League. Bertrand Arthur William Russell was born on 18 May at Ravenscroft, Trellech , Monmouthshire , Wales , into an influential and liberal family of the British aristocracy. Lord Amberley consented to his wife's affair with their children's tutor, the biologist Douglas Spalding. Both were early advocates of birth control at a time when this was considered scandalous.
His paternal grandfather, the Earl Russell , had twice been Prime Minister in the s and s. They established themselves as one of the leading British Whig families and participated in every great political event from the Dissolution of the Monasteries in — to the Glorious Revolution in — and the Great Reform Act in Russell had two siblings: brother Frank nearly seven years older than Bertrand , and sister Rachel four years older.
In June Russell's mother died of diphtheria , followed shortly by Rachel's death. In January , his father died of bronchitis following a long period of depression. Frank and Bertrand were placed in the care of their staunchly Victorian paternal grandparents, who lived at Pembroke Lodge in Richmond Park. His grandfather, former Prime Minister Earl Russell , died in , and was remembered by Russell as a kindly old man in a wheelchair. The countess was from a Scottish Presbyterian family, and successfully petitioned the Court of Chancery to set aside a provision in Amberley's will requiring the children to be raised as agnostics.
Despite her religious conservatism, she held progressive views in other areas accepting Darwinism and supporting Irish Home Rule , and her influence on Bertrand Russell's outlook on social justice and standing up for principle remained with him throughout his life. Her favourite Bible verse, "Thou shalt not follow a multitude to do evil" Exodus , became his motto. The atmosphere at Pembroke Lodge was one of frequent prayer, emotional repression, and formality; Frank reacted to this with open rebellion, but the young Bertrand learned to hide his feelings.
Russell's adolescence was very lonely, and he often contemplated suicide. He remarked in his autobiography that his keenest interests were in "nature and books and later mathematics saved me from complete despondency;"  only his wish to know more mathematics kept him from suicide.
During these formative years he also discovered the works of Percy Bysshe Shelley. Russell wrote: "I spent all my spare time reading him, and learning him by heart, knowing no one to whom I could speak of what I thought or felt, I used to reflect how wonderful it would have been to know Shelley, and to wonder whether I should meet any live human being with whom I should feel so much sympathy.
Finally, at the age of 18, after reading Mill's Autobiography , he abandoned the " First Cause " argument and became an atheist. He travelled to the continent in with an American friend, Edward FitzGerald , and with FitzGerald's family he visited the Paris Exhibition of and was able to climb the Eiffel Tower soon after it was completed.
Russell won a scholarship to read for the Mathematical Tripos at Trinity College, Cambridge , and commenced his studies there in ,  taking as coach Robert Rumsey Webb. He became acquainted with the younger George Edward Moore and came under the influence of Alfred North Whitehead , who recommended him to the Cambridge Apostles.
He quickly distinguished himself in mathematics and philosophy, graduating as seventh Wrangler in the former in and becoming a Fellow in the latter in He soon fell in love with the puritanical, high-minded Alys, and, contrary to his grandmother's wishes, married her on 13 December Their marriage began to fall apart in when it occurred to Russell, while he was cycling, that he no longer loved her. Russell also disliked Alys's mother, finding her controlling and cruel.
It was to be a hollow shell of a marriage. A lengthy period of separation began in with Russell's affair with Lady Ottoline Morrell ,  and he and Alys finally divorced in to enable Russell to remarry. During his years of separation from Alys, Russell had passionate and often simultaneous affairs with a number of women, including Morrell and the actress Lady Constance Malleson.
Russell began his published work in with German Social Democracy , a study in politics that was an early indication of a lifelong interest in political and social theory. In he taught German social democracy at the London School of Economics.
He now started an intensive study of the foundations of mathematics at Trinity. The Italians had responded to Georg Cantor , making a science of set theory ; they gave Russell their literature including the Formulario mathematico.
Russell was impressed by the precision of Peano's arguments at the Congress, read the literature upon returning to England, and came upon Russell's paradox.
In he published The Principles of Mathematics , a work on foundations of mathematics. It advanced a thesis of logicism , that mathematics and logic are one and the same. At the age of 29, in February , Russell underwent what he called a "sort of mystic illumination", after witnessing Whitehead 's wife's acute suffering in an angina attack. In , he wrote the essay " On Denoting ", which was published in the philosophical journal Mind.
This, along with the earlier The Principles of Mathematics , soon made Russell world-famous in his field. In , he became a University of Cambridge lecturer at Trinity College, where he had studied. He was considered for a Fellowship, which would give him a vote in the college government and protect him from being fired for his opinions, but was passed over because he was "anti-clerical", essentially because he was agnostic. He was approached by the Austrian engineering student Ludwig Wittgenstein , who became his PhD student.
Russell viewed Wittgenstein as a genius and a successor who would continue his work on logic. He spent hours dealing with Wittgenstein's various phobias and his frequent bouts of despair. This was often a drain on Russell's energy, but Russell continued to be fascinated by him and encouraged his academic development, including the publication of Wittgenstein's Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus in Wittgenstein was, at that time, serving in the Austrian Army and subsequently spent nine months in an Italian prisoner of war camp at the end of the conflict.
During World War I , Russell was one of the few people to engage in active pacifist activities. In , because of his lack of a Fellowship, he was dismissed from Trinity College following his conviction under the Defence of the Realm Act Russell championed the case of Eric Chappelow , a poet jailed and abused as a conscientious objector. After the event, Russell told Lady Ottoline Morrell that, "to my surprise, when I got up to speak, I was given the greatest ovation that was possible to give anybody".
The books were bought by friends; he later treasured his copy of the King James Bible that was stamped "Confiscated by Cambridge Police". A later conviction for publicly lecturing against inviting the United States to enter the war on the United Kingdom's side resulted in six months' imprisonment in Brixton Prison see Bertrand Russell's political views in I found prison in many ways quite agreeable.
I had no engagements, no difficult decisions to make, no fear of callers, no interruptions to my work. I read enormously; I wrote a book, "Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy" I was rather interested in my fellow-prisoners, who seemed to me in no way morally inferior to the rest of the population, though they were on the whole slightly below the usual level of intelligence as was shown by their having been caught.
While he was reading Strachey 's Eminent Victorians chapter about Gordon he laughed out loud in his cell prompting the warden to intervene and reminding him that "prison was a place of punishment".
Russell was reinstated to Trinity in , resigned in , was Tarner Lecturer and became a Fellow again in until In , Russell again gained press attention when attending a "banquet" in the House of Commons with well-known campaigners, including Arnold Lupton , who had been a Member of Parliament and had also endured imprisonment for "passive resistance to military or naval service". In , G. Hardy wrote a page pamphlet titled Bertrand Russell and Trinity —published later as a book by Cambridge University Press with a foreword by C.
Broad —in which he gave an authoritative account about Russell's dismissal from Trinity College, explaining that a reconciliation between the college and Russell had later taken place and gave details about Russell's personal life.
Hardy writes that Russell's dismissal had created a scandal since the vast majority of the Fellows of the College opposed the decision. The ensuing pressure from the Fellows induced the Council to reinstate Russell. In January , it was announced that Russell had accepted the reinstatement offer from Trinity and would begin lecturing from October. In July , Russell applied for a one year leave of absence; this was approved. He spent the year giving lectures in China and Japan.
In January , it was announced by Trinity that Russell had resigned and his resignation had been accepted. This resignation, Hardy explains, was completely voluntary and was not the result of another altercation.
The reason for the resignation, according to Hardy, was that Russell was going through a tumultuous time in his personal life with a divorce and subsequent remarriage. Russell contemplated asking Trinity for another one-year leave of absence but decided against it, since this would have been an "unusual application" and the situation had the potential to snowball into another controversy.
Although Russell did the right thing, in Hardy's opinion, the reputation of the College suffered due to Russell's resignation since the 'world of learning' knew about Russell's altercation with Trinity but not that the rift had healed. In , Russell was asked by the Council of Trinity College to give the Tarner Lectures on the Philosophy of the Sciences; these would later be the basis for one of Russell's best-received books according to Hardy: The Analysis of Matter , published in I wish to make it plain that Russell himself is not responsible, directly or indirectly, for the writing of the pamphlet I wrote it without his knowledge and, when I sent him the typescript and asked for his permission to print it, I suggested that, unless it contained misstatement of fact, he should make no comment on it.
He agreed to this In August , Russell travelled to Soviet Russia as part of an official delegation sent by the British government to investigate the effects of the Russian Revolution. In his autobiography, he mentions that he found Lenin disappointing, sensing an "impish cruelty" in him and comparing him to "an opinionated professor". He cruised down the Volga on a steamship. His experiences destroyed his previous tentative support for the revolution.
He subsequently wrote a book, The Practice and Theory of Bolshevism ,  about his experiences on this trip, taken with a group of 24 others from the UK, all of whom came home thinking well of the Soviet regime, despite Russell's attempts to change their minds. For example, he told them that he had heard shots fired in the middle of the night and was sure that these were clandestine executions, but the others maintained that it was only cars backfiring.
Russell's lover Dora Black , a British author, feminist and socialist campaigner, visited Soviet Russia independently at the same time; in contrast to his reaction, she was enthusiastic about the Bolshevik revolution. The following autumn, Russell, accompanied by Dora, visited Peking as it was then known in the West to lecture on philosophy for a year.
Bertrand Russell, having died according to the Japanese press, is unable to give interviews to Japanese journalists". Dora was six months pregnant when the couple returned to England on 26 August Russell arranged a hasty divorce from Alys, marrying Dora six days after the divorce was finalised, on 27 September Russell supported his family during this time by writing popular books explaining matters of physics , ethics, and education to the layman.
From to the Russells divided their time between London and Cornwall , spending summers in Porthcurno. Owing to the birth of his two children, he became interested in education, especially early childhood education. He was not satisfied with the old traditional education and thought that progressive education also had some flaws,  as a result, together with Dora, Russell founded the experimental Beacon Hill School in The school was run from a succession of different locations, including its original premises at the Russells' residence, Telegraph House, near Harting , West Sussex.
On 8 July Dora gave birth to her third child Harriet Ruth. After he left the school in , Dora continued it until
Moore to ethical non-cognitivism similar to Ayer. Traditionally, ethics has been understood as a branch of philosophy that focuses on normative value in human conduct; it is the search for a rationally defensible view concerning what things are good worth aiming at , which actions are right, and why. However, the tradition took a peculiar turn in the context of 20 th century analytic philosophy. Here, philosophers began to focus on the meanings of ethical terms and claims, rather than on the elements of right conduct. Current fashion divides ethics into three sub branches: normative ethics, metaethics and applied ethics.
In the early 20th century, Russell led the British "revolt against idealism ". He is widely held to be one of the 20th century's premier logicians. Whitehead he wrote Principia Mathematica , an attempt to create a logical basis for mathematics, the quintessential work of classical logic. His philosophical essay " On Denoting " has been considered a " paradigm of philosophy". Russell was a prominent anti-war activist , championed anti-imperialism , and chaired the India League. Bertrand Arthur William Russell was born on 18 May at Ravenscroft, Trellech , Monmouthshire , Wales , into an influential and liberal family of the British aristocracy. Lord Amberley consented to his wife's affair with their children's tutor, the biologist Douglas Spalding.
Social philosophy is the study of questions about social behavior and interpretations of society and social institutions in terms of ethical values rather than empirical relations. There is often a considerable overlap between the questions addressed by social philosophy and ethics or value theory. Other forms of social philosophy include political philosophy and jurisprudence , which are largely concerned with the societies of state and government and their functioning. Social philosophy, ethics, and political philosophy all share intimate connections with other disciplines in the social sciences. In turn, the social sciences themselves are of focal interest to the philosophy of social science.
To the general public, Russell is best known as a radical activist for myriad political, moral, and social causes. In academic philosophy, Russell is best known as a proponent of evidence-based and science-informed philosophy; a philosopher of mathematics, logic, and epistemology; and, with G. Moore, a cofounder of analytic philosophy. Despite leading a life on the edges of respectability, with two arrests and years without work due to his infamous views, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in , won the Order of Merit in , and earned a Nobel Prize for Literature in , for A History of Western Philosophy Prepared since early childhood by his grandmother for a life in
Bertrand Russell , one of the towering intellectuals of the 20th century, was an indefatigable pacifist throughout the Great War. But his pacifism was not unreserved, depending as it did on his consequentialist attitude towards war and towards pacifism.
I have chosen this subject for my lecture tonight because I think that most current discussions of politics and political theory take insufficient account of psychology. Economic facts, population statistics, constitutional organization, and so on, are set forth minutely. There is no difficulty in finding out how many South Koreans and how many North Koreans there were when the Korean War began. If you will look into the right books you will be able to ascertain what was their average income per head, and what were the sizes of their respective armies. And so you cannot tell whether the South Koreans are enthusiastic about UNO, or would prefer union with their cousins in the North. Nor can you guess whether they are willing to forgo land reform for the privilege of voting for some politician they have never heard of.
Viste el anillo. Ты видел кольцо. Двухцветный замер. Как правильно ответить. - Viste el anillo? - настаивал обладатель жуткого голоса. Двухцветный утвердительно кивнул, убежденный, что честность - лучшая политика. Разумеется, это оказалось ошибкой.
Ну давай. Окажись дома. Через пять гудков он услышал ее голос. - Здравствуйте, Это Сьюзан Флетчер. Извините, меня нет дома, но если вы оставите свое сообщение… Беккер выслушал все до конца.
Human Society in Ethics and Politics. compassionhamilton.orgl. February 9 - 14, back in the other Politics composed seven years later, one chapter of which is actually External codes are intricably connected with man as a gregarious animal.
Бринкерхофф поднялся со своего места, словно стоя ему было легче защищаться, но Мидж уже выходила из его кабинета. - Руки на стол, - бросила она через плечо. - Когда я уйду, пожалуйста, никаких глупостей. И у стен есть. Бринкерхофф опустился на стул, слушая, как стук ее каблуков затихает в конце коридора.
Чатрукьян просмотрел список и изумился еще. Все файлы прошли проверку, в них не было обнаружено ничего необычного, а это означало, что ТРАНСТЕКСТ безукоризненно чист. На что же уходит такая уйма времени. - спросил он, обращаясь в пустоту и чувствуя, как покрывается. Наверное, придется потревожить этой новостью Стратмора. Проверка на наличие вируса, - решительно сказал он себе, стараясь успокоиться.
Его погубило слабое сердце - вот так. Слишком уж удобная версия. Стратмор пожал плечами.
После этого сюда полезут все, кому не лень. Каждый бит информации АНБ станет общественным достоянием. Фонтейн внимательно изучал ВР, глаза его горели.
Чем скорее будет найден ключ и все закончится, тем лучше для. Сьюзан потеряла счет времени, потраченного на ожидание Следопыта. Два часа. Три. Она перевела взгляд на пустую шифровалку.
Hola. Тишина. Наверное, Меган, подумал .
Она потянулась к Дэвиду, но он исчез, и ее руки сомкнулись в пустоте. Телефонный звонок окончательно прогнал сон. Сьюзан Флетчер вздохнула, села в кровати и потянулась к трубке.
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