File Name: science technology and society a sociological approach wenda k bauchspies .zip
Science and technology studies or science, technology and society studies STS are the study of how society, politics, and culture affect scientific research and technological innovation , and how these, in turn, affect society , politics and culture. Like most interdisciplinary fields of study, STS emerged from the confluence of a variety of disciplines and disciplinary subfields, all of which had developed an interest—typically, during the s or s—in viewing science and technology as socially embedded enterprises.
My department is an interdisciplinary social science called Science and Technology Studies. Funny kids over there. What follows is, in some really broad strokes, the contours of this little-known but growing intellectual tradition. My hope is that this is somewhat helpful around this time of year for people who might just be getting into STS departments congrats! One final caveat: like all histories, this one is confined by its author. Revolution occurs when a sizeable contingent of scientist challenge the paradigm itself.
Fleck was writing in the 20s and 30s up until his eventual incarceration in a Nazi concentration camp where he was forced to work on and eventually invented a typhus vaccine in a German army hospital through experimentation on prisoners.
He survived but his work on epistemology in this later period is not as widely cited. The STS work of the 70s and 80s laid the groundwork for the established field it is today. Much of what was written in this time was the result of a symbiotic relationship between counterculture and critical thought applied to science and technology.
These texts, along with dozens of articles, essays, and books by in no particular order Donald MacKenzie, Sal Restivo, David Noble, Sandra Harding, Donna Haraway, Andrew Pickering, Michel Callon, Wiebe Bijker, Thomas Hughes, and Trevor Pinch began to develop a coherent rebuttal to the dominant idea that technologies are apolitical tools and science merely observes and records objective facts.
I summarize that argument here. This launched a long-standing tradition of seeing scientific objects and theoretical models as cultural artifacts as well. By the end of the 80s and into the first half of the 90s several major projects had solidified into recognizable schools of thought and theories: The Sociology of Scientific Knowledge SSK and Social Construction of Technology SCoT continued where Fleck left off and produced dense and elaborate accounts of technological invention and scientific discovery.
Everything from the design of 13th century Portuguese ships of war Law, to Bakelite plastic and fluorescent lighting Bijker was gone over with a fine tooth comb. These authors were after two very big ideas. This usually involved investigating the working definitions of technoscientific concepts like accuracy and precision.
How accurate is accurate enough? Does accuracy work the same way in nuclear missile design and furniture construction? Scientific instruments, Latour and Woolgar argued, inscribed invisible forces onto tangible and exchangeable documents and it was this process of inscription that was the over-looked but crucial process along with high social standing that made it possible to form arguments about the world. A sizeable portion of STS literature is devoted to articulating just how technoscientific objects mediate and represent the world around us.
His book We Have Never Been Modern argued that modernity, more than anything else, relied on a conceptual separation between knowledge pertaining to nature and society. That is, the way we construct causality and ontology was unnecessarily bifurcated by a deeply and widely held belief that the laws governing society and nature were completely different. The titular argument of the book was a massive critique of the post-modern project as well, since the collapsing of boundaries was predicated on those boundaries beginning in the first place.
Only recently [PDF] has Latour tried to articulate what we have been this whole time, if not modern. In the mean time, he described the nonmodern as an infinitely complex network of human and nonhuman actors or actants that could be studied through his well-known Actor-Network theory developed with fellow ANT adherents Michel Callon and John Law. It was specifically a call for socialist feminists to reassess their identity-centered politics and recognize the power of affinities.
The thesis is, and this is where this history definitely becomes my telling, does essentially the same work that Latour does.
It is, at least for me, what We Have Never Been Modern should have been, at least in terms of its applicability to race, class and gender politics. Another boundary STS interrogates is that of lay and expert knowledge. Much of this work relies on case studies of scientific controversy surrounding environmental disasters and faulty technologies. In other words, authors like Andrew Pickering look at what decisions scientists and engineers make in the moment so as to better understand how science works as a practice, not a profession or a collection of facts.
This sort of work is getting particularly useful now that STS scholars have also taken it upon themselves to collaborate with scientist and engineers themselves and engage in the making process. The future of STS, if current publications are any indication of future progress, will be in making as well as writing.
David, thanks much for this overview, and for the links I'm looking forward to following. As an "independent scholar" an accurate but pretentious-sounding self-description who is passionate about the history and philosophy of technology, you've helped point me in the direction of gaps in my knowledge I've been vaguely aware needed filling. Your description leaves the impression that STS studies as defined by the academy are heavy on theory and relatively light on history, although of course theory starts with history.
Perhaps that's a misunderstanding on my part. In any event, close studies of the history of technology have been incredibly important in informing my understandings of the philosophy and sociology of technology.
Leave us not forget to include Aristotle, Bacon, and Carlyle on our list of important thinkers on the subject. As I think you know, I earn my living not as a professor but as a journalist, so the quality of writing matters to me. It would be fun, therefore, to see a chart wherein the readability of the scholars discussed here could be visualized. Of those with whom I'm familiar, I'd put Ellul and Winner at the "most readable" end of the continuum and Haraway and Pickering on the opposite end.
Thanks for your comments, David. Probably what I should have said was that I personally get inspired by history as much as the theory. Leo Marx's The Machine in the Garden, for example, is one of my favorite books ever. David E. Noble and Thomas Hughes are other important writers for me. Thanks especially for the mention of Peter Galison -- I have read and enjoyed Einstein's Clocks but am not familiar with his other work. I guess I should improve my patience my wife will agree to that readily enough : I couldn't get through Pickering's Mangle of Practice and only made it about half way through Leviathan and the Air Pump, this after a couple of tries, cause everybody talks about how significant it is.
Maybe Latour's book will give me a fresh angle on it. Thanks for the article, David. Another really good crash-course on the history of STS with a focus on science studies vs. We live in a cyborg society. Technology has infiltrated the most fundamental aspects of our lives: social organization, the body, even our self-concepts. This blog chronicles our new, augmented reality. Several turns to Technology, Social Construction, Representation, and the Nonmodern Fleck was writing in the 20s and 30s up until his eventual incarceration in a Nazi concentration camp where he was forced to work on and eventually invented a typhus vaccine in a German army hospital through experimentation on prisoners.
Computation and Human Experience. Bijker, Wiebe E. Hughes, and Trevor Pinch. Bijker, Wiebe. Cambridge Mass. DiSalvo, Carl. Adversarial Design. Design Thinking, Design Theory. Haraway, Donna J. Hess, David J. Science Studies: An Advanced Introduction. NYU Press. Latour, Bruno. London; New York: Routledge. We Have Never Been Modern. Feminist Technology. University of Illinois Press.
Nieusma, Dean. Pickering, Andrew, ed. Science as Practice and Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Pickering, Andrew. Ratto, Matt. Sady, Wojciech. Zalta, Summer Sismondo, Sergio. An Introduction to Science and Technology Studies. Wynne, Bryan. Cambridge University Press. Comments 6 Doug Hill — July 31, David, thanks much for this overview, and for the links I'm looking forward to following.
Doug Hill — July 31, Thanks for your comments, David. Chris Hong — July 31, Thanks for the article, David. About Cyborgology We live in a cyborg society.
The Canadian Journal of Sociology New York: Columbia University Press, , pp. Don Mills, ON: Pearson, , pp. Anderson, A. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, , pp. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag fuer Sozialwissenschaften, , pp. Barry, John and Robyn Eckersley, eds.
The s could be called The Decade of Sociology in mathematics education. It was during those years that the sociology of mathematics became a core ingredient of discourse in mathematics education and the philosophy of mathematics and mathematics education. Unresolved questions and uncertainties have emerged out of this discourse that hinge on the key concept of social construction. By theorizing the divisions of purity and danger, we will be able to better understand the intersection of logic, mathematics, and thinking with gender, race, and class, and morals, ethics, and values in the classroom.
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My department is an interdisciplinary social science called Science and Technology Studies. Funny kids over there. What follows is, in some really broad strokes, the contours of this little-known but growing intellectual tradition.
Bauchspies, Jennifer Croissant, Sal Restivo From reader reviews: Brian Rankins: Reading a publication tends to be new life style with this era globalization.
Search this site. A Monograph of the Existing Crinoids, Vol. Actes de la Societe Linneenne de Bordeaux, , Vol. Adsorption from Solution PDF. Aftermath PDF. Alopecia Areata PDF. American Massacre PDF.
Он действительно это сделал. - Да. Создатель последнего шифра, который никто никогда не взломает. Сьюзан долго молчала. - Но… это значит… Стратмор посмотрел ей прямо в глаза: - Да. Энсей Танкадо только что превратил ТРАНСТЕКСТ в устаревшую рухлядь. ГЛАВА 6 Хотя Энсей Танкадо еще не родился, когда шла Вторая мировая война, он тщательно изучал все, что было о ней написано, - особенно о кульминации войны, атомном взрыве, в огне которого сгорело сто тысяч его соотечественников.
В него попал зараженный файл, сэр. Я абсолютно в этом уверен. Лицо Стратмора побагровело. - Мистер Чатрукьян, такое уже случалось. Нет никакого файла, который мог бы заразить ТРАНСТЕКСТ. - Вы ошибаетесь, сэр! - вскричал Чатрукьян. - И если он проникнет в главную базу данных… - Что еще за файл, черт возьми.
Вообще говоря, это была не комната, а рушащееся убежище: шторы горели, плексигласовые стены плавились.
Но Стратмор не дал ей договорить. - Сьюзан, это же абсолютно ясно. Танкадо выгравировал ключ Цифровой крепости на кольце.
Сьюзан нашла свои валявшиеся на ковре итальянские туфли, на мгновение оглянулась, увидела все еще корчившегося на полу Грега Хейла и бросилась бежать по усеянному стеклянным крошевом полу шифровалки. ГЛАВА 68 - Ну видишь, это совсем не трудно, - презрительно сказала Мидж, когда Бринкерхофф с видом побитой собаки протянул ей ключ от кабинета Фонтейна.