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Daha sonra yeniden deneyin.

The term discourse L. In a field of enquiry and social practice, the discourse is the vocabulary codified language for investigation of the subject, e.

Space, Knowledge and Power: Foucault and Geography

Michel Foucault : there are several developments in his work: 1 Philosophy of Knowledge: Works on various forms of knowledge, science and praxis. Social-constructionist arguments, also anti-humanism and structuralism philosophy of language, cf.

Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish. New York: Pantheon. The end result of all the previous. This paper focuses on Foucault's study of discipline and power. Discipline: Technologies, Programs, and Strategies. During the years to , public executions gradually disappeared, and punishment instead became hidden, and concealed.

The torture of the body was replaced by the surveillance of the soul pp. To account for this transformation, Foucault undertakes to study the concrete systems of punishment, or power as the political technology of the body. Foucault's analysis is a micro-physics of power; it focuses on the transformations of the strategies, tactics, techniques, and concrete functionings of power, to investigate how it came about that nowadays "the soul is the prison of the body" The book is a history of the present.

Foucault first discusses the reform proposals that were suggested since the second half of the 18th century. This reveals that power technologies and discourses are related, but that a concrete analysis of the actual practices can nevertheless show discrepancies between what is thought and what is done. The "great reformers" proposed leniency in punishment, but only at the cost of greater intervention pp. A more efficient economy and technology of punishment was proposed that would allow for a discreet but calculable exercise of power over the soul.

The rules of the new punishment included: 1 unarbitrary punishment: for each crime there would be one specific type of punishment; 2 emphasis on crime prevention: the desire for crime had to be eliminated; 3 temporal modulation: punishment can be weakened as it gradually shows its positive effects; 4 punishment should benefit both the offender and the collective: punishment is a lesson in public morality, an open book to read, a school rather than a spectacle; 5 crime is a misfortune: the criminal must be re-educated.

Strikingly, the prison system does not fit in this model, but nevertheless detention did become the essential form of punishment. While the prison is also focused at the transformation of the individual, and while prison terms are individualized in duration and intensity , there are important differences in technology. So why did the prison replace torture?

Foucault then goes on to analyze the nature of the new punishment, what he calls discipline. First, discipline produces docile bodies pp. With the transformation of punishment, the body is seen as something to be manipulated, shaped, trained, and made to obey.

As a result of different, multiple processes, which should be described in detail, the body is seen to have entered a machinery of power. The techniques of discipline include: - the distribution of individuals in space cf.

Second, discipline relies heavily on the means of correct training pp. These include the following techniques: 1 hierarchical observation: the individuals are clearly visible to permit detailed control and to transform them; it becomes possible for "a single gaze to see everything constantly Power is thus more anonymous, more functional, and more individualizing. In the panopticon, this type of power finds its supreme manifestation cf.

Here, discipline is a type of power technology that gradually develops into a generalized form of panopticism. Society becomes not a society of spectacle, but a society of surveillance so that everybody comes to live in the panoptic machine. Within this overall pattern of the changing nature of punishment, the development of the prison system becomes understandable pp.

Prisons are intended to make individuals more docile and useful; they are deprived of liberty and subject to transformation.

The corrective task of the prisons Foucault considers crucial from the very beginning of the prison system: prison reform is contemporary with its development p. The prison is also more than the deprivation of liberty; it provides a structure that is omni-disciplinary, to take care of the whole of the individual.

The central principles in this care-taking are: - isolation: the individual is self-regulated enlightenment from within within a microcosm of vertically hierarchicized isolated individuals; - work: the prisoner's labor activities are not useful for production but for the effect they have on the human mechanism; - modulation of the penalty: the length of the penalty is related to success of the transformation. The organization of the prison system is in the hands of an autonomous penitentiary judgment, which is related to medical, economic and political models, while the role of the judge is limited and secondary.

Different forms of knowledge sustain the technology of prison surveillance. Knowledge is used for the improvement of the individual, to create permanent documentation and moral accounting.

The offender becomes someone to know; the object of knowledge is the delinquent, not his acts but his life. Delinquency, as the official category of deviant acts, is thus created by the prison system pp. The real functions served by the prison system, since it cannot eliminate what it creates, are the ability to distinguish, distribute, and use offences; prisons succeed in producing delinquency, to supervise it, to control this form of isolated illegality.

Foucault sees the prison as only one manifestation of the disciplinary society pp. The "carceral system" becomes complete when cloister, prison, school and regiment come together.

Al these systems are characterized by training, observation, knowledge and perpetual assessment of the soul. As the prison spreads farther and farther outwards, the following patterns emerge: - a continuous gradation to pass from a slight departure of a rule, a demand, a norm; - major delinquents are produced disciplinary careers ; there is no outside, everything is saved in the system; - the power to punish is natural and legitimate, strictly a matter of economy without physical violence; - the system becomes universal so that the level from which it is acceptable to punish is lowered; - a new form of law emerges to create the norm cf.

First, there is a distinction between the programs, technologies, and strategies of power. A program of power refers to the general way in which punishment is conceived Bentham's panopticon is an example.

A program is discursive and it still has to be complemented by a technology. It is important to note that the failure of one program e. The analysis of a program illuminates a type of discourse.

Technology, not in the limited meaning usually given to it, concerns "the government of individuals, the government of the souls, the government of the self by the self, the government of families, the government of children, and so on" Technologies are the actual practices of power. Strategies, finally, are non-discursive and more artificial and improvisational.

Strategies are hybrids with concrete effects. Strategic options are opened because technologies have a logic of their own which is always somewhat independent from the program. Second, Foucault explicitly mentions how power today should be conceived. Several characteristics of contemporary power need to be examined Foucault, Power is pervasive throughout the social body to regulate at all times.

At the same time, it represents a political anatomy of detail supervising all individual movements and gestures. Therefore, power must make everything and everybody visible: "A fear haunted the latter half of the eighteenth century: the fear of darkened spaces, of the pall of gloom which prevents the full visibility of things, men and truths If Bentham's project aroused interest, this was because it provided a formula applicable to many domains, the formula of 'power through transparency', subjection by 'illumination'" , Power, then, is manifested not only in the prison, but also in the school, the barracks, the hospital, and the asylums.

Formerly the house of confinement Now the asylum must represent the great continuity of social morality" There is, therefore, not a unilinear relationship between power and state or capitalism. The concreteness of power derives from the fact that it is "more dependent upon bodies and what they do than upon the Earth and its products" The power of the sovereign was still "linked to a form of power that [was] exercised over the Earth and its products, much more than over human bodies and their operations" But today the body of the sovereign is dead, the social body has taken over.

The procedures of power today are more diverse than only the disciplinary type and still include repressive power forms. The principles of visibility and discipline do not govern all technologies of power Foucault, Precisely because power is neither too concentrated nor too divided, it can go "right down into the depths of society" , "down to the finest grain of the social body" Power is non-localized and indiscriminate: "It's a machine in which everyone is caught, those who exercise power just as much as those over whom it is exercised" Power has no single reference point, no one single source: "these tactics were invented and organised from the starting points of local conditions and particular needs.

They took shape in piecemeal fashion, prior to any class strategy designed to weld them into vast, coherent ensembles" Power is a system of "total and circulating mistrust" and absolute intrusiveness: "power reaches into the very grain of individuals, touches their bodies and inserts itself into their actions and attitudes, their discourses, learning processes and everyday live" For instance, "The asylum as a juridical instance recognized no other.

It judged immediately, and without appeal. It possessed its own instruments of punishment, and used them as it saw fit". Power in the asylum "did not borrow its modes of repression from the other justice, but invented its own" Therefore "the asylum furnished simultaneously police, magistrates, and torturers.

The asylum Specialists personify and legitimize these workings of power: "It is not as a scientist that homo medicus has authority in the asylum, but as a wise man. If the medical profession is required, it is as a juridical and moral guarantee, not in the name of science" The medical expert acts not as a scientist but by relying on prestige "which envelops the secrets of the Family, of Authority, of Punishment, and of Love" Thus, power can move "through progressively finer channels, gaining access to individuals themselves, to their bodies, their gestures and all their daily actions" Power produces and is useful, it does not exclude, is not negative Power creates individuals to operate through rather than against them: "Prison professionalised people.

Therefore, the individual should be seen as "a reality fabricated by this specific technology of power We must cease once and for all to describe the effects of power in negative terms; In fact, power produces; it produces reality; it produces domains of objects and rituals of truth" Power is subjectification, and "individuals are the vehicles of power, not its points of application The individual, that is, is not the vis-a-vis of power; it is, I believe, one of its prime effects" Power is both discourse and practice.

These forms of knowledge also justify power in terms of leniency, while in fact it is a matter of certainty and calculability. The discourses of power make sure that the existence of delinquents is socially accepted. This acceptability runs throughout society: in aesthetics, for instance, the criminal is portrayed as the enemy of the poor Here the human sciences find their origin.

Space, knowledge and power: Foucault and geography

Previous Ed: paperback February ; hardback February This is a book which will both surprise and challenge. Fall; Could Foucault have revolutionized geography? Crampton; Beyond the Panopticon? About the Editors: Dr Jeremy W. This outstanding and comprehensive collection brings together for the first time, not only original texts by Foucault, but also the work of French and Anglophone commentators and authorities in the area. An invaluable and beautifully organized resource, highly recommended for both students and scholars alike.

The system can't perform the operation now. Try again later. Citations per year. Duplicate citations. The following articles are merged in Scholar. Their combined citations are counted only for the first article. Merged citations.

This intervention originally appeared as the second half of a longer essay intended as a basis for discussion in a Masters seminar at our university original essay available here. It has been revised and updated for publication on AntipodeOnline. Over the last months, there has been a true explosion of critical scholarly contributions aimed at making sense of the political responses to the Covid pandemic. Not only is the multiplicity of interventions and contributions that have been made at a global scale increasingly hard to track, writing during a pandemic also risks illuminating pre-established theoretical frameworks more than the unfolding events themselves. It is our conviction that some of the ideas of Michel Foucault, whose methodology has always been oriented towards differentiated empirical and historical analysis rather than abstract theorization, can avoid this danger while illustrating possibilities for making detailed sense of ongoing events. This essay does not argue that a Foucault-inspired approach is capable of providing a comprehensive account of the current situation or the political responses taken. While other authors have discussed elements of Foucauldian theories e.


Stuart Elden · Jeremy W. Crampton · Preview · Space, Knowledge and Power: Foucault and Geography Book Description Table of Contents Author(s).


Foucault Power Knowledge - amazonia.fiocruz.br

Stuart Elden Editor. Jeremy Crampton Editor. Legg, S. Beyond the European province: Foucault and postcolonialism. Elden Eds.

The concept of power is arguably one of the central concepts of political philosophy. Yet, political philosophy, especially in its Anglo-American form, has largely neglected the question of power, inquiring instead into the best form of state and government, the nature of political obligation, and the principles of justice motivating the institutional and procedural structure of the state. Thus, to the extent that it takes up power as an object of philosophical inquiry at all, it theorizes it on the model of classical sovereignty, that is, indivisible, absolute, and supreme power of a state.

Citations per year

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It seems that you're in Germany. We have a dedicated site for Germany. Interest in relations between knowledge, power, and space has a long tradition in a range of disciplines, but it was reinvigorated in the last two decades through critical engagement with Foucault and Gramsci. This volume focuses on relations between knowledge and power. It shows why space is fundamental in any exercise of power and explains which roles various types of knowledge play in the acquisition, support, and legitimization of power. Topics include the control and manipulation of knowledge through centers of power in historical contexts, the geopolitics of knowledge about world politics, media control in twentieth century, cartography in modern war, the power of words, the changing face of Islamic authority, and the role of Millennialism in the United States. This book offers insights from disciplines such as geography, anthropology, scientific theology, Assyriology, and communication science.

New book for Crampton and Stuart Elden is now available:. Or you can order it directly from the publisher. This outstanding and comprehensive collection brings together for the first time, not only original texts by Foucault, but also the work of French and Anglophone commentators and authorities in the area. An invaluable and beautifully organized resource, highly recommended for both students and scholars alike.

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