File Name: basics of accounting and finance .zip
This SLP will also provide LLB students with the knowledge and skills in financial accounting which should enable them to pass the legal bookkeeping section of the. New to the list! A simple, but highly-rated and effective timekeeping app for lawyers for the Android OS.
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Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Ankit Saxena. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. Accounting Basics For Beginners Dr. Why understanding the financial accounting is important for managers b. The different financial statements c. The important users of financial statements d. Basic assumptions of financial statements e.
Important terms in financial accounting Introduction: Accounting basics will introduce you to some of thefundamentalAccounting principles, concepts, and Terminology.
Basically, the main purpose of Financial Accounting is to provide useful Financial information to people or groups both inside and outside of companies often called external users. Who Uses Financial Accounting? The ultimate goal of financial accounting is to compile business transactions and other input documents like invoices and sales receipts in the form of general purpose financial statements that can be understood by external users.
The key concept here is that external users must be able to understand and use this financial information when they are making decisions about the company. They will participate in the profits and losses of the company.
Participation in the losses might be limited or unlimited depending upon the type of organisation. They do not possess any ownership rights. However, they would lend money at some interest rate. To be precise, accounting is about tracking a business. The end product of the financial accounting process is a set of reports that are called financial statements. To begin with, lets us understand some basic Accounting Terms. Basic Accounting Terms: In order to understand the subject matter clearly, one must grasp the following common expressionsalways used in business accounting.
The aim here is to enable the student to understand with theseoften used concepts before we embark on accounting procedures and rules. The event can be measured in terms of money and changes the financialposition of a person e. Transaction could be a cashtransaction or credit transaction. When the parties settle the transaction immediately by makingpayment in cash or by cheque, it is called a cash transaction. In credit transaction, the paymentis settled at a future date as per agreement between the parties.
Profit: The excess of Revenue Income over expense is called profit. It could be calculated for eachtransaction or for business as a whole. Loss: The excess of expense over income is called loss. It could be calculated for each transactionor for business as a whole. Asset: Asset is a resource owned by the business with the purpose of using it for generating futureprofits.
Assets can be Tangible and Intangible. Tangible Assets are the Capital assets which havesome physical existence. The capital assets whichhave no physical existence and whose value is limited by the rights and anticipated benefits thatpossession confers upon the owner are known as intangible Assets. Liability: It is an obligation of financial nature to be settled at a future date. It represents amountof money that the business owes to the other parties. It may be in the form of cash, goods,or any other asset which the proprietor or partners of business invest in the business activity.
Frombusiness point of view, capital of owners is a liability which is to be settled only in the event of closureor transfer of the business. Hence, it is not classified as a normal liability. For corporate bodies, capitalis normally represented as share capital. Debtor : The sum total or aggregate of the amounts which the customer owe to the business forpurchasing goods on credit or services rendered or in respect of other contractual obligations, isknown as Sundry Debtors or Trade Debtors, or Trade Payable, or Book-Debts or Debtors.
In otherwords, Debtors are those persons from whom a business has to recover money on account of goodssold or service rendered on credit. Creditors are generally classified as Current Liabilities.
Capital Expenditure : This represents expenditure incurred for the purpose of acquiring a fixed assetwhich is intended to be used over long term for earning profits there from. At times expenditure may be incurred forenhancing the production capacity of the machine.
This also will be a capital expenditure. Capitalexpenditure forms part of the Balance Sheet. Revenue expenditure : This represents expenditure incurred to earn revenue of the current period.
The benefits of revenue expenses get exhausted in the year of the incurrence. The revenue expenditure results in reduction in profit orsurplus.
It forms part of the Income statement. Business usually prepares 3 reports. A statement of financial position referred to as balance sheet 2. Income statement 3. Statement of cash flows. In this module, we can just concentrate on the income statement and Balance sheet. Balance Sheet : It is the statement of financial position of the business entity on a particular date. It lists all assets, liabilities and capital. It is important to note that this statement exhibits the state ofaffairs of the business as on a particular date only.
It describes what the business owns and whatthe business owes to outsiders this denotes liabilities and to the owners this denotes capital. Profit and Loss Account or Income Statement : This account shows the revenue earned by thebusiness and the expenses incurred by the business to earn that revenue. This is prepared usuallyfor a particular accounting period, which could be a month, quarter, a half year or a year.
The netresult of the Profit and Loss Account will show profit earned or loss suffered by the business entity. A lot of events affect the business, like receiving cash from customers, making payment to suppliers, tax payments, buying and selling on credit etc. Therefore, to have identical understanding of transactions, Accounting adopts the following four major measurement assumptions: a.
Reporting Entity: The primary assumption here is that the Firm is different from its owners and other firms. It has an existence of its own.
Owners might come and go. But the organisation exists. Therefore, the financial statement of the firm shall show the financial position of the firm alone and does not include the financial transaction of any other individual or entity. Reporting entity is also defined by the purpose and the context of financial reporting. For e. A company might have different subsidiary or group companies; Some businesses might want to reports based on segment of business like based on type of products or Geographical segment etc.
This assumption is extremely important to understand, as the businesses go through difficult and successful periods of time. However, they will be able to meet their commitments to the stakeholders in spite of seemingly difficult position. Usually cost commitments, the assets that the firm owns and the ability of the organisation to generate revenue in the foreseeable future will determine if it is a going concern or not. Periodicity: As we assume that the organisations continue to exist under the going concern assumption, the stake holders of the firm may want to find out the results of the operation every now and then.
To satisfy this condition, firms have to report to its stake holders, on their financial performance and financial position based on an artificial time period. This is usually a year. However, the current practices also make it mandatory to report once a quarter. Money measurement: Under this assumption, financial transactions are recorded and Financial statements are always expressed in terms of money for the ease of understanding.
If a transaction or activity cannot be measured in terms of money, such things cannot find a place in the accounting records. However, the type of unit of money i. The important assumption here is that money is a stable measure in the same way as Kg is a stable measure for weight.
Employees are residual claimants of the profits of the business, i. Who among the following would be interested in a company's financial information for the sake of resource allocation, formulation of taxation policies and investigation of corporate crimes? What does the accounting assumption 'reporting entity' mean?
What does the accounting assumption 'historical cost' mean? The concept of double entry system b. The content of a Balance Sheet c. The Accounting equation d. The effect of a transaction on the accounting equation Double Entry System: Double entry is a simple yet powerful concept each and every one of a company's transactions will result in an amount recorded into at least two of the accounts in the accounting system.
Every transaction has two fold aspects, i.
Accounting is the practice of recording and reporting on business transactions. The resulting information is an essential feedback loop for management, so that they can see how well a business is performing against expectations. The following discussion of accounting basics is needed to give you a firm grounding from which to understand how an accounting system works and how it is used to generate financial reports. First, there must be a rational approach to record keeping. This means setting up accounts in which financial information is stored. Accounts fall into the following classifications:.
Financial accounting. As mentioned earlier, financial accounting deals with the preparation of financial statements for the basic purpose of providing.
The textbook provides a thorough overview of the accounting system. It delves quite a bit into the "why" of accounting which is sometimes glossed over in favor of mechanics in other texts. Comprehensiveness rating: 5 see less. The life examples are drawn from companies which are relevant and understandable to students today.
Accounting is one of those concepts and fields that can easily throw you off, especially when it comes to all that terminology used. You can grasp these and many other basic accounting principles with ease. This tutorial is tailored to provide you with all you need to know about accounting. General Ledger and the Chart of Accounts are central to accounting and understanding what it is and how it works is very crucial to proper accounting.
Accounting or Accountancy is the measurement , processing, and communication of financial and non financial information about economic entities   such as businesses and corporations. Accounting, which has been called the "language of business",  measures the results of an organization's economic activities and conveys this information to a variety of users, including investors , creditors , management , and regulators. The terms "accounting" and " financial reporting " are often used as synonyms. Accounting can be divided into several fields including financial accounting , management accounting , external auditing , tax accounting and cost accounting.
Master the technical skills needed to analyze financial statements and disclosures for use in financial analysis, and learn how accounting standards and managerial incentives affect the financial reporting process. Then you can apply these skills to a real-world business challenge as part of the Wharton Business Foundations Specialization. The University of Pennsylvania commonly referred to as Penn is a private university, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. A member of the Ivy League, Penn is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, and considers itself to be the first university in the United States with both undergraduate and graduate studies.
Financial accounting or financial accountancy is the field of accounting concerned with the summary, analysis and reporting of financial transactions related to a business. Stockholders , suppliers , banks , employees , government agencies , business owners , and other stakeholders are examples of people interested in receiving such information for decision making purposes. Financial accountancy is governed by both local and international accounting standards. Generally Accepted Accounting Principles GAAP is the standard framework of guidelines for financial accounting used in any given jurisdiction. It includes the standards, conventions and rules that accountants follow in recording and summarizing and in the preparation of financial statements.
Financial Statements; Income Statement; Account Receivables and Account Payables; Accounting Methods: Cash or Accrual.
From general transaction recording conventions to the full accounting cycle and … We are in the process of updating this content. This page contains helpful formulas for Accounting Terms of the sale: D. How this is reported in the Income Statement: E. No Discounts Allowed When calculating the amount of a sales or purchase discount, there is no discount on freight charges and there is no discount on returns. Do you understand double-entry accounting?
Внезапно он понял, что входит в собор. ГЛАВА 90 В шифровалке завывали сирены. Стратмор не имел представления о том, сколько времени прошло после ухода Сьюзан. Он сидел один в полутьме, и гул ТРАНСТЕКСТА звучал в его ушах. Вы всегда добиваетесь своего… вы добьетесь… Да, - подумал. - Я добиваюсь своих целей, но честь для меня важнее.
ТРАНСТЕКСТ не может с ним справиться. Сьюзан подумала о Стратморе, о том, как мужественно он переносит тяжесть этого испытания, делая все необходимое, сохраняя спокойствие во время крушения. Иногда она видела в нем что-то от Дэвида.
Наверное, Испания напомнила мне о том, что по-настоящему важно. - Помогать вскрывать шифры? - Она чмокнула его в щеку. - Как бы там ни было, ты поможешь мне с моей рукописью. - Рукописью. - Да.
Собор закрыт до утренней мессы. - Тогда в другой. - Беккер улыбнулся и поднял коробку.
Она вглядывалась в глаза Танкадо - и видела в них раскаяние. Он не хотел, чтобы это зашло так далеко, - говорила она. - Он хотел нас спасти.
Estoy bien. Человек смерил его сердитым взглядом: - Pues sientate. Тогда сядьте. Вокруг послышалось шушуканье, старик замолчал и снова стал смотреть прямо перед. Беккер прикрыл глаза и сжался, раздумывая, сколько времени продлится служба.
Но глаза… твои глаза, - сказал Беккер, чувствуя себя круглым дураком. - Почему они такие красные. Она расхохоталась. - Я же сказала вам, что ревела навзрыд, опоздав на самолет. Он перевел взгляд на слова, нацарапанные на ее руке.
Звонки в агентства услуг сопровождения ничего не дали.
In this article, we discuss what basic accounting is, what is included in it and examples of basic accounting procedures.JoselГn T. 19.05.2021 at 18:03
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