File Name: political science concepts and definitions .zip
Political philosophy , branch of philosophy that is concerned, at the most abstract level, with the concepts and arguments involved in political opinion.
Example: The government of the United States is a democracy established by the Constitution.
Our study of politics will begin with a review of the basic principles of politics and various perspectives on how we define politics and its domain. We will discuss the changing notion of politics over time and across cultures as we work towards a definition.
This unit will lay the framework for the remaining five units in this course. A confident and solid grasp of the principles presented in this unit is therefore crucial to your progression through the remainder of the course. You will find, for example, that each of the five subsequent units will conclude with a discussion of how the principles you have learned and the issues you have identified apply to a contemporary, real-life situation. You will need to draw from the foundational material you have learned in this unit in order to respond to these applied situations.
This article provides a comprehensive overview of the field of political science, its cross-disciplinary connections, and the various fields and sub-fields of study within the discipline. Read section As we just read in the previous article, to study politics is to "study power — who gets what, and how".
This section explains that power can be conceptualized both in terms of "domination" and "collective capacity". In other words, "power" can refer to the ability to get someone to do something they normally would not do, but it also refers to the capacity institutions and people have to act or create. Authority is "accepted power". People accept the authority of a government or ruler when they believe that the government or ruler can rightly and appropriately exercise power over them.
Accepting the authority of the government gives the government legitimacy. This reading introduces the three primary types of authority: traditional, charismatic, and rational-legal. Why do you think legitimacy is such a critical component in the ability to govern effectively?
What happens when a government is not seen as legitimate by its citizens? Since "power" is such an important concept in political science, political scientists have categorized power into three categories: hard power, soft power, and "smart" power.
Hard power is the most traditional conceptualization of power and involves force or coercion. Soft power, popularized by scholar and U. This article offers critiques of the concept of soft power in contemporary international relations. Hallam questions whether the debate over hard and soft power is outdated, particularly considering the Obama administration's emerging emphasis on "smart power" and the challenges of national security in an unstable international system.
As you read, consider the importance of power in political science and think about how power can be exercised. What do you think is the most effective: hard, soft, or smart power?
This section discusses the three authority types as defined by Max Weber, one of the foremost social theorists of the twentieth century. Weber outlines three primary types of authority: traditional authority, rational-legal authority, and charismatic authority.
As you read, ask yourself the following questions:. This handout is designed to teach you how to conduct original political science research. While you won't be asked to write a research paper, this handout provides important information on the "scientific" approach used by political scientists.
Pay particularly close attention to the section that answers the question "what is scientific about political science? If you were going to conduct research in biology or chemistry, what would you do? You would probably create a hypothesis, and then design an experiment to test your hypothesis. Based on the results of your experiment, you would draw conclusions. Political scientists follow similar procedures.
Like a scientist who researches biology or chemistry, political scientists rely on objectivity, data, and procedure to draw conclusions. This article explains the process of operationalizing variables. Why is that an important step in social science research? This article mentions the two primary approaches to social science research, quantitative and qualitative approaches.
Quantitative research involves the use of data from many cases and uses statistical calculations to draw conclusions from these data sets. In the qualitative approach, a researcher will provide an in-depth analysis of a more limited number of cases. The previous article explored how social sciences and political science follow scientific methods in research and data gathering.
This article reflects the ongoing debate within academia over the ways in which the study of politics should be conducted.
Political science does not merely deal with academic or scholarly subjects; it can have significant practical applications. According to this article, what are some of the barriers to making political science research more "relevant" to contemporary policymaking? The study of political science often involves difficult and philosophical topics.
The Saylor Introduction to Political Science reading you read at the beginning of this unit explained that political theory involves the study of politics from a philosophical perspective. Political theory "addresses such issues as the nature of political authority, the relationship of the state to the individual, and citizens' obligations and responsibility to one another. Political theory seeks to interpret abstract concepts such as liberty, justice, human rights, and power". Constitutionalism and political representation are two important perspectives in political philosophy that seek to address some of the above issues.
In this first article, you will read about constitutionalism. According to constitutionalism, laws and written constitutions should be what binds and controls the power of government. In other words, the central tenet of constitutionalism is that the authority of government derives from and is limited by a body of fundamental law. Pay close attention to some of the common criticisms of constitutionalism. Do you think constitutionalism is a practical or democratic approach to governance?
According to the perspective of political representation, the process of citizen representation in government should be the source of government authority, and should be the way in which government power is controlled. The article outlines some of the different ways in which political actors choose to reflect or represent the will of the people.
Which do you think would be more effective or democratic, constitutionalism or political representation? Skip to main content. Side panel. Log in or Sign up. Getting Started. Discussion Forums. Course Introduction.
Unit 1: Foundational Concepts of Politics. Unit 2: Participation and Public Opinion. Unit 3: Ideologies. Unit 4: The State. Unit 5: Political Institutions. Unit 6: International Politics. Study Guides.
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Unit 1: Foundational Concepts of Politics Our study of politics will begin with a review of the basic principles of politics and various perspectives on how we define politics and its domain.
Completing this unit should take you approximately 11 hours. Upon successful completion of this unit, you will be able to: situate the academic discipline of political science within the broader field of social science; define politics, power, authority, and legitimacy; analyze the debate over political science as a "scientific" discipline; explain the concepts of constitutionalism and political representation; illustrate the rational-legal, charismatic, and traditional forms of legitimacy; and compare and contrast smart power, soft power, and hard power.
Introduction to Political Science Page. Government and Politics URL. Power and Authority URL. As you read, ask yourself the following questions: Which type of authority leads to the most stable form of government, and why?
Which type leads to the least stable form of government? How can one form of authority eventually lead to another? For example, in how can charismatic authority evolve into traditional authority? Why is the U. Can either of the other two types of authority apply? Research in Political Science Page. Constitutionalism URL. Representation in Politics URL. Unit 1 Assessment Quiz. Take this assessment to see how well you understood this unit.
It is just for practice! You will see the correct answers when you submit your answers. Use this to help you study for the final exam! You can take this assessment as many times as you want, whenever you want.
Political science is that branch of the social sciences that studies the state, politics, and government. Political Science deals extensively with the analysis of political systems, the theoretical and practical applications to politics, and the examination of political behavior. The Greek thinker, Aristotle, defined political science as the study of the state. Many political scientists view themselves as being engaged in fleshing out the connections between political events and conditions, and by this understanding they hope to construct a system of general principles that posit the way the world of politics works. Political science is not a standalone field and it intersects many other branches like sociology, economics, history, anthropology, public policy among others.
Like the other social sciences, political science focuses on all three basic types of of roughly equal importance, whose mutual relations and meanings are.
Political methodology offers techniques for clarifying the theoretical meaning of concepts such as revolution and for developing definitions of revolutions. It also provides descriptive indicators for comparing the scope of revolutionary change, and sample surveys for gauging the support for revolutions. It then presents an array of methods for making causal inferences that provide insights into the causes and consequences of revolutions.
Political science , the systematic study of governance by the application of empirical and generally scientific methods of analysis. As traditionally defined and studied, political science examines the state and its organs and institutions. The contemporary discipline , however, is considerably broader than this, encompassing studies of all the societal, cultural, and psychological factors that mutually influence the operation of government and the body politic. Although political science borrows heavily from the other social sciences , it is distinguished from them by its focus on power —defined as the ability of one political actor to get another actor to do what it wants—at the international, national, and local levels. Although political science overlaps considerably with political philosophy , the two fields are distinct.
Skip to content. Political science focuses on the theory and practice of government and politics at the local, state, national, and international levels. We are dedicated to developing understandings of institutions, practices, and relations that constitute public life and modes of inquiry that promote citizenship. Political theory is concerned mainly with the foundations of political community and institutions. It focuses on human nature and the moral purposes of political association. To clarify these concepts, political theorists draw on enduring political writings from ancient Greece to the present and on various writings by moral philosophers. Political theory also focuses on empirical research into the way political institutions function in practice.
Giovanni Sartori into political science, is still indebted to the notion of concepts as symbolic intermediaries between mind (as location of meaning) and the.
Political theory is the study of political ideas and values like justice, power and democracy that we use to describe, understand and assess political practices and institutions. Undergraduate education in political theory at Vanderbilt approaches this study in two ways: by introducing students to the historical tradition of political theory and by educating students in the debates of contemporary political theory. Many of our courses combine both perspectives so that students can, for example, learn about important concepts like justice or democracy as we have understood them historically and as we view them today.
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Энсей Танкадо мертв, власти убеждены, что это сердечный приступ, прямо как в учебнике, кроме одного обстоятельства. Халохот ошибся с местом действия. Быть может, смерть Танкадо в публичном месте была необходимостью, однако публика возникла чересчур .
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Направляясь к центру Третьего узла, Сьюзан пыталась привести свои мысли в порядок. Странно, что она чувствует нервозность в такой знакомой ей обстановке. В темноте все в Третьем узле казалось чужим.
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This basic theory of political concepts has, Schmitt notes, implications for the student of political thought. The historical significance and even the precise meaning.Scott A. 13.05.2021 at 03:11
Our study of politics will begin with a review of the basic principles of politics and various perspectives on how we define politics and its domain.