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Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change And Ocean Acidification Pdf

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Published: 11.05.2021

Ocean warming and acidification from increasing levels of atmospheric CO 2 represent major global threats to coral reefs, and are in many regions exacerbated by local-scale disturbances such as overfishing and nutrient enrichment. Our understanding of global threats and local-scale disturbances on reefs is growing, but their relative contribution to reef resilience and vulnerability in the future is unclear.

Ocean Acidification

Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer. In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript. Global climate change will drive declines in coral reefs over coming decades. Yet, the relative role of temperature versus acidification, and the ability of resultant ecosystems to retain core services such as coastal protection, are less clear. Here, we investigate changes to the net chemical balances of calcium carbonate within complex experimental coral reefs over 18 months under conditions projected for if CO 2 emissions continue unmitigated.

Climate change is impacting coral reefs now. Recent pan-tropical bleaching events driven by unprecedented global heat waves have shifted the playing field for coral reef management and policy. While best-practice conventional management remains essential, it may no longer be enough to sustain coral reefs under continued climate change. Nor will climate change mitigation be sufficient on its own. Committed warming and projected reef decline means solutions must involve a portfolio of mitigation, best-practice conventional management and coordinated restoration and adaptation measures involving new and perhaps radical interventions, including local and regional cooling and shading, assisted coral evolution, assisted gene flow, and measures to support and enhance coral recruitment. We propose that proactive research and development to expand the reef management toolbox fast but safely, combined with expedient trialling of promising interventions is now urgently needed, whatever emissions trajectory the world follows.

Climate: Weather expected at given location and time of year, based on observations over at least 30 years, including average values and range of variability. Greenhouse gas: Constituent of atmosphere that absorbs and emits thermal infrared radiation. Greenhouse effect: Trapping by atmospheric greenhouse gases of thermal infrared radiation, which otherwise would be lost to space, within climate system. Climate change is not new. Global and regional climate has varied and changed in the past on a range of time scales due to a variety of internal and external causes IPCC, a , Chap. Organisms and ecosystems, such as coral reefs, have survived, changed their distribution, and adapted to many of these past changes. Skip to main content Skip to table of contents.

Publications

Published in Science on December 14, Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration is expected to exceed parts per million and global temperatures to rise by at least 2 degrees C by to , values that significantly exceed those of at least the past , years during which most extant marine organisms evolved. Under conditions expected in the 21st century, global warming and ocean acidification will compromise carbonate accretion, with corals becoming increasingly rare on reef systems. The result will be less diverse reef communities and carbonate reef structures that fail to be maintained. Climate change also exacerbates local stresses from declining water quality and overexploitation of key species, driving reefs increasingly toward the tipping point for functional collapse. This review presents future scenarios for coral reefs that predict increasingly serious consequences for reef- associated fisheries, tourism, coastal protection, and people.

Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification

Under conditions expected in the 21st century, global warming and ocean acidification will compromise carbonate accretion, with corals becoming increasingly rare on reef systems. The result will be less diverse reef communities and carbonate reef structures that fail to be maintained. Climate change also exacerbates local stresses from declining water quality and overexploitation of key species, driving reefs increasingly toward the tipping point for functional collapse. This review presents future scenarios for coral reefs that predict increasingly serious consequences for reef-associated fisheries, tourism, coastal protection, and people.

The density and width of the annual growth bands in coral skeletons decline in response to ocean acidification, resulting in slower growth. Rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion and deforestation is gradually altering the chemistry of the oceans, making seawater more acidic.

Ocean acidification

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. DOI: Hoegh-Guldberg and P. Mumby and A.

Effects of climate change across ocean regions View all 11 Articles. Coral reefs are found in a wide range of environments, where they provide food and habitat to a large range of organisms as well as providing many other ecological goods and services. Warm-water coral reefs, for example, occupy shallow sunlit, warm, and alkaline waters in order to grow and calcify at the high rates necessary to build and maintain their calcium carbonate structures.

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Coral reefs under rapid climate change and ocean acidification

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Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification

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