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Food Security And Livelihoods Pdf

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Availability, access and proper use of food sustained over time

Diversifying livelihoods has become a key strategy to disrupt social-ecological traps by seeking to decouple poverty and overexploitation dynamics in many parts of the world e. Interdisciplinary research has focused on how poor or vulnerable households endure or succeed under difficult circumstances by examining the composition of their livelihoods e. Ellis , clearly articulates how diverse livelihood assets increase the capabilities of rural households to raise their living standards and manage uncertainty.

As a whole, the literature is rich with examples where some measure of diversity, e. This learning is particularly important for small-scale fishers in the Global South, who often pursue a range of cross-sectoral activities to make ends meet Allison and Horemans , Cinner and Bodin , Daw et al.

A weakness of the livelihood diversification paradigm is that it implicitly infers that, in almost every context, people should be doing more, and be doing something different.

There is also a conceptual muddiness in the livelihood diversification narrative: patterns of livelihood diversity have been translated into a normative process that aims to diversify livelihoods as practice for development initiatives. Diversification of rural livelihoods has become central to both development and environmental policy and practice e. This is an area where there is still much to learn for both rural development and conservation programs because diversification can also expose new vulnerability Lauer , Eriksson et al.

Kotschy et al. Simply adding activities can sometimes generate additional burden for household members, especially for women, who are often household caretakers and assume responsibility for additional household activities Chant and Sweetman , Cohen et al. Given the juxtaposition between the nearly universal support for livelihood diversification in development programs and the highly diverse and context specific nature of rural livelihoods, the purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between livelihoods and food security in rural households in Solomon Islands.

Understanding what sources of livelihood provides greater input to food security is important to guide the design of rural development programs. These were shifting cultivators who inhabited the forested hinterlands of the lagoon Ivens , Burt The saltwater people built artificial islands of coral rocks on reefs and in the mangrove swamps, and specialized in the production of tafuli'ae , strings of polished shells that are traditional wealth items used throughout the archipelago for trade, feasts, and compensation and marriage payments Cooper , Goto , Guo European contact fundamentally altered livelihoods, trade networks, and social relations in the lagoon.

The labor trade and evangelization efforts provided new material goods such as steel axes, fishhooks, and guns, which enhanced agricultural productivity, but also increased gender inequality and led to widespread violence Moore In , the British colonial government established a station at the northern tip of the lagoon, present-day Auki town.

The Langalanga dominated interisland trade in the protectorate, and in the s several shipyards were established in the lagoon Guo Copra and cocoa became important agricultural commodities. Despite these developments, fishing remains the primary livelihood activity for the Langalanga people PGSP ; however, overfishing has severely impacted on marine resources in the lagoon Eriksson et al.

Horticulture is the other main source of food and income for most households. Typical daily diets in the area comprise fish, sweet potato, rice, and slippery cabbage Albert et al. Most agricultural land is owned by Kwara'ae clans under customary law, which restricts investment in agricultural development by Langalanga people. The civil conflict that paralyzed the country in the early s reinforced these ethnic differences and inequalities.

Health care, education, infrastructure, and other government services in the rural areas remain very poor, despite ambitious government plans and substantial international development aid after the civil conflict World Bank There are approximately households in the Langalanga Lagoon area, including inland villages and adjacent communities on the fringes of Auki SINSO In March , we conducted a socioeconomic survey of households in 12 villages using a structured questionnaire the questionnaire is provided in Appendix 1.

The survey was carried out by a team of four male and two female Solomon Islanders. Two of the team members were from Langalanga and could speak the local language; all members were familiar with the culture and fluent in Solomon Islands Pijin, the lingua franca of the country.

The Solomon Islands census SINSO was consulted to determine the actual number of households to be sampled in each village see Appendix 2 for detailed sampling effort. For small villages particularly those on artificial islands , with usually 10 or fewer houses, all households were interviewed. Heads of households were sought for the survey. If other family members were present during the interview, they could assist in contributing to answers.

The composition of household members was recorded. The survey questions elicited whether households were worried about availability of food; had food available; had enough food to eat; and were eating the foods that they preferred in the four weeks prior to the survey. To elicit trends in HFIAS scores according to household demography, we carried out multiple regression analysis as described by Logan The total number of household members was defined as the people who regularly sleep and eat at the dwelling.

The household child-to-adult ratio was calculated. The survey also asked recall questions about income and we calculated household per capita income for analysis against HFIAS trends.

Survey respondents were also asked questions about which household livelihood activities generate food and income. The question asking respondents to list all livelihoods was open-ended. This worked well for casual labor type occupations, e. Respondents indicated which household members were responsible for each livelihood activity to build a picture of all household livelihoods.

Respondents were asked to score the importance of each livelihood activity to their household on a 1—4 scale. In this study, we interpret a livelihood value to be the level of perceived importance to overall household food and income as scored in the survey.

In our analyses, we assigned a zero 0 score to all livelihood activities that were not scored by the household not part of their portfolio , to enable us to quantify how unimportant or unsuitable some livelihood activities were. We did not measure fish catches, garden yields, or incomes directly.

We calculated linear regressions to predict HFIAS based on number of reported household livelihoods and average weekly household income per capita. For multivariate testing of any livelihood activity composition effect on HFIAS, we calculated the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity matrix and ordinated the data in nonmetric multidimensional space.

To supplement the quantitative analyses from Langalanga, we provide qualitative information summarizing participatory action research in the location Schwarz et al. Our organization WorldFish has worked with people from these villages since to formalize a community-based organization, implement training events, and launch a locally managed marine area LMMA.

Half of the surveyed households reported moderate food insecurity and a quarter of the households identified themselves as severely food insecure. People who rely on natural resources throughout the year reported experiencing fluctuations in access to these resources for food and income.

Our study was conducted in March at the end of the northwestern trade winds, koburu , which is generally the lean period in the lagoon. It is likely that the results of our food security measurements would have been different if sampled at a different time of the year.

Nevertheless, it gives an idea about the broad pattern of food insecurity in Langalanga. We sought explanation to the food security pattern first in the size of the household and the household ratio of children to adults. Other studies have found that family size influences food security. For example, the literature indicates that larger families tend to be less food secure Olayemi , but that this is not a linear relationship and both external factors and family demography plays in Garret and Ruel To predict the HFIAS score from household size and the ratio of children to adults, and the interaction of these variables, we calculated multiple regression analysis.

In our case, the data provided no evidence that the tested household variables, or the interaction variable, predicted HFIAS scores Table 1.

Our analyses indicated that food security in Langalanga households is not a direct product of the internal household attributes that we sampled. Higher income is broadly considered a key factor in reducing hunger Maxwell and Smith , Beyene and Muche , but in agricultural settings household food production strategies can offset such income trends Silvestri et al. We calculated a linear regression to predict HFIAS based on reported average weekly household income per capita. It is possible that the method of self-reporting income, although commonly used in structured questionnaire surveys e.

Pacific Island food systems are transforming toward a higher proportion of imported processed foods Snowdon et al. This is also the case in Solomon Islands Andersen et al. As part of this transition, an increasing reliance on income-generating livelihoods for food sourcing might be expected. All HFIAS categories from food secure to severely food insecure had a relatively equal distribution of households relying solely on income-generating livelihoods Table 2.

Previous research suggests that households with higher incomes would rely more on purchased foods rather than self-produced food Campbell , but we were not able to tease out whether such relationships contributed to household food security in our dataset.

We sought further explanation for the differences in household food security by examining the data on the nature of household livelihoods. In total, 30 livelihood activities were recorded in the survey Fig. The number of livelihoods in a household does not predict its food security. Clearly, different households in Langalanga are food secure to varying degrees. It is intuitive then to theorize that it is not the number but the specific type of livelihood activities that make some households more food secure than others.

To explore this proposition, we examined the livelihood portfolios of households in each HFIAS category. The ordination analysis illustrated that livelihood portfolios between households in the four HFIAS categories were similar and overlapping Fig. Learning from the livelihood strategies of relatively food secure households can help identify factors that can contribute to enhancing food security, and prioritize specific development interventions Silvestri et al.

In this vein, we expected to find that those households that categorize as food secure in Langalanga Lagoon would exhibit a dissimilar livelihood composition to food insecure households, something that would set them apart and offer us insights into livelihood strategies that build food security in the Langalanga context, but this was not the case.

This shows that livelihood diversification as a desired development process is difficult to make operational in Langalanga: we cannot deduce an ideal set of livelihood activities that will achieve food security. Opportunities for people to diversify livelihoods vary in Langalanga Lagoon. For example, households within the lagoon are located at different distances from the urban center, Auki, and have differential access to arable land Sulu et al.

It is reasonable to expect that households have different opportunities to generate value from similar activities, and may invest differently in them. To examine this proposition, we analyzed the distribution of how households value livelihood activities Fig. Across the 12 most common livelihoods, there is a clear pattern of varying values to households. Fishing is a key livelihood of Langalanga people for both food and income Sulu et al.

Our data indicate that people make a living based on the opportunities that they see in front of them and the capacity that they have to pursue these opportunities.

These patterns highlight a shortcoming in the quantitative survey methodology also see Chambers A greater emphasis on qualitative research would allow households to explain their sources of food security and insecurity in greater depth.

For example, stressors, such as droughts and illness or deaths, can force households to rapidly reorganize and reprioritize livelihoods activities e. It would be useful to explore what diversification processes might look like from the householder perspective. In addition, resource sharing between relatives is a strong feature of the culture of our case-study setting, so it is possible that our food security response variable might be influenced based on social institutions such as kinship, which we did not incorporate into our analyses.

The livelihood diversification paradigm has become central to development policy and practice e. In the small-scale fisheries sector in the Pacific, for example, livelihood diversification is actively promoted by donors, governments, and civil society organizations as a way to alleviate poverty, improve food insecurity, and reduce pressure of marine resources O'Garra , Gillett et al. Coastal fisheries development programs have focused on promoting alternative livelihoods such as mariculture Hambrey et al.

Livelihood diversification also permeates development policy and practice in Solomon Islands see Table 3 for recent development projects in Malaita Province. However, our findings challenge the assumption that a high diversity of activities leads to improved food security and complicates the process of what to actually do. Efforts to diversify livelihoods that are not attuned to community capacity, needs, aspirations, and opportunities are unlikely to survive project lifetimes O'Garra , Govan

Livelihoods and Food Security Among Rural Households in the North-Western Mount Kenya Region

Food Security has a direct impact on the nutritional and health status of people. It exists when "all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life. Food Security is often closely linked to Nutrition. Minimum standards helping humanitarian actors ensure adequate food security in humanitarian contexts. Yearly report monitoring progress of the Sustainable Development Goals related to food security and malnutrition, while also providing an analysis of the underlying causes and drivers of observed trends.


Assess the situation of food security and livelihoods in four districts in Sindh;. • Assess the dietary diversity, hunger, severity of food insecurity, malnutrition and.


Food Security and Livelihoods

Households combine capital assets in a process involving human agency and resourcefulness to construct livelihood strategies and generate well-being outcomes. Here, we 1 characterized types of livelihood strategies; 2 determined how different capital assets are associated with different livelihood strategies; and 3 determined how livelihood strategies differed in food security outcomes. We conducted a survey in southwestern Ethiopia and used principal component and cluster analyses. Five types of livelihood strategies, which differed mainly in food and cash crops comprising the strategy, were identified.

Food insecurity remains a major concern for numerous rural households in Sub-Saharan Africa who rely on agriculture as their main source of livelihood. The assessment of the links between food security and livelihoods is central for overcoming widespread food insecurity. However, assessments remain challenging due to food security's multi-dimensionality and the challenge of finding indicators that are comparable and applicable to various contexts. This study addresses this challenge by adapting a food security index FSI and uses it to assess the livelihood drivers of food security.

Livelihoods and Food Security Among Rural Households in the North-Western Mount Kenya Region

In a world that produces enough food for everyone, it is unacceptable that million people suffer from hunger or, in other words, their food security is not guaranteed. The availability, access and consumption of nutritional food guarantees food security.

Food security and livelihoods

Diversifying livelihoods has become a key strategy to disrupt social-ecological traps by seeking to decouple poverty and overexploitation dynamics in many parts of the world e. Interdisciplinary research has focused on how poor or vulnerable households endure or succeed under difficult circumstances by examining the composition of their livelihoods e. Ellis , clearly articulates how diverse livelihood assets increase the capabilities of rural households to raise their living standards and manage uncertainty.

Food Security has a direct impact on the nutritional and health status of people. It exists when "all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life. Food Security is often closely linked to Nutrition. Minimum standards helping humanitarian actors ensure adequate food security in humanitarian contexts. Yearly report monitoring progress of the Sustainable Development Goals related to food security and malnutrition, while also providing an analysis of the underlying causes and drivers of observed trends.

Charitable contributions from people like you make it possible for us to support hunger and livelihood programs and so much more. Please support our mission and work around the world with a gift to our Global Action Fund. You can count on us to be good stewards of your generous donation, helping vulnerable children where the need is greatest with whatever they need the most.. Donate Now. For children, continued undernourishment can lead to stunted growth and cognitive impairment, diminished educational attainment and a lifetime of lower income, continuing a cycle of hunger and poverty. Our food security programs help families increase production, diversify incomes, save for the future and ensure that their children are well-nourished, so that they thrive and reach their full potential.


PDF | On Mar 1, , Susanne Jaspars and others published Food security and livelihoods programming in conflict: a review | Find, read and.


Key actors

With COVID now spreading in India, massive consequences to health and livelihoods are feared, and the government has imposed a day national lockdown to limit virus transmission. Given the precarious livelihoods of many Indians, agriculture, food security, and safety net policy and program responses are also urgently required. Mahendra Dev, an experienced academic and policy maker in India, provides additional insights into what actions and reforms are needed, and soon. India has taken early action to limit the spread of COVID, ordering a day nationwide lockdown for its population of 1. The novel coronavirus has spread widely in India relatively recently compared to other countries, and the number of reported infections is low so far, with 5, cases and deaths as of April 8.

Jump to navigation. Brief Description: The purpose of this tool is to obtain a quick understanding of the emergency food security and livelihood situation within the first few days after a rapid-onset disaster. This tool collects information on food security and livelihoods. The results of this initial assessment are meant to inform the design of first-phase responses, in the first six to eight weeks after a disaster occurrs. A more detailed assessment led by food security and livelihood specialists is expected to take place at a later date. Uses: This tool aims to support response teams to gather an adequate picture of the food security and livelihoods situation in order to design rapid responses that can meet immediate needs and protect livelihoods in the context of practical constraints that usually follow a rapid-onset crisis. Number of Staff Required: The number of staff on the assessment team is not specified; this will vary depending on available resources.

Это могло оказаться лучшей новостью за весь день. Смит потянулся к объективу камеры, чтобы направить его в глубь кузова. На экране промелькнула внутренняя часть мини-автобуса, и перед глазами присутствующих предстали два безжизненных тела у задней двери. Один из мужчин был крупного телосложения, в очках в тонкой металлической оправе с разбитыми стеклами. Второй - молодой темноволосый, в окровавленной рубашке.

Во всех храмах Киото… - Довольно! - сказал Джабба.  - Если ключ - простое число, то что с. Варианты бесконечны.

Он думает, что я балуюсь наркотиками. - А это не так? - спросил Беккер холодно, глядя на ее припухший локоть. - Конечно, нет! - возмущенно ответила девушка. Она смотрела на него невинными глазами, и Беккер почувствовал, что она держит его за дурака.  - Да будет .

Дэвид приветливо улыбнулся. Он не знал, как зовут этого человека. - Deutscher, ja. Вы немец.

Наклонился и осмотрел пальцы левой руки. Лейтенант следил за его взглядом. - Ужасное уродство, правда.

Reducing Enteric Methane for Improving Food Security and Livelihoods

Надо звонить Стратмору.

Он хотел их отключить. Для него важен был только один голос, который то возникал, то замолкал. - Дэвид, прости .

Сьюзан посмотрела на него и подумала о том, как жаль, что этот человек, талантливый и очень ценный для АНБ, не понимает важности дела, которым занимается агентство. - Грег, - сказала она, и голос ее зазвучал мягче, хотя далось ей это нелегко.  - Сегодня я не в духе. Меня огорчают твои разговоры о нашем агентстве как каком-то соглядатае, оснащенном современной техникой. Эта организация создавалась с единственной целью - обеспечивать безопасность страны.

ГЛАВА 31 Сьюзан вернулась в Третий узел. После разговора со Стратмором она начала беспокоиться о безопасности Дэвида, а ее воображение рисовало страшные картины. - Ну, - послышался голос Хейла, склонившегося над своим компьютером, - и чего же хотел Стратмор. Провести романтический вечер в обществе своего главного криптографа. Сьюзан проигнорировала его вопрос и села за свой терминал.

4 Comments

Julie P. 13.05.2021 at 15:34

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Doug D. 18.05.2021 at 23:42

I. Food Security and Livelihoods. 8. Global findings. The fight against hunger and poverty. The Sustainable Livelihoods conceptual framework. II.

Coafrommaccse 22.05.2021 at 12:29

and lay the foundation of the ACF Food Security and Livelihood Booklet Series. individual dietary diversity compassionhamilton.org

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