File Name: blacks in science ancient and modern .zip
March 21 st nd: Easter.
Africa has the world's oldest record of human technological achievement: the oldest stone tools in the world have been found in eastern Africa, and later evidence for tool production by our hominin ancestors has been found across Sub-Saharan Africa. The Great Rift Valley of Africa provides critical evidence for the evolution of early hominins.
Ancient Chinese scientists and engineers made significant scientific innovations, findings and technological advances across various scientific disciplines including the natural sciences , engineering , medicine , military technology , mathematics , geology and astronomy.
Among the earliest inventions were the abacus , the sundial , and the Kongming lantern. The Tang dynasty AD — in particular was a time of great innovation.
The Jesuit China missions of the 16th and 17th centuries introduced Western science and astronomy, then undergoing its own revolution, to China, and knowledge of Chinese technology was brought to Europe. Much of the early Western work in the history of science in China was done by Joseph Needham.
The Warring States period began years ago at the time of the invention of the crossbow. The schools served as communities which advised the rulers of these states. Needham further notes that the Han dynasty , which conquered the short-lived Qin, were made aware of the need for law by Lu Jia and by Shusun Tong , as defined by the scholars, rather than the generals.
Derived from Taoist philosophy, one of the newest longstanding contributions of the ancient Chinese are in Traditional Chinese medicine , including acupuncture and herbal medicine. The practice of acupuncture can be traced back as far as the 1st millennium BC and some scientists believe that there is evidence that practices similar to acupuncture were used in Eurasia during the early Bronze Age. Using shadow clocks and the abacus both invented in the ancient Near East before spreading to China , the Chinese were able to record observations, documenting the first recorded solar eclipse in BC, and making the first recording of any planetary grouping in BC.
It listed 29 comets referred to as sweeping stars that appeared over a period of about years, with renderings of comets describing an event its appearance corresponded to. Typical Chinese architecture changed little from the succeeding Han dynasty until the 19th century. Several remains of crossbows have been found among the soldiers of the Terracotta Army in the tomb of Qin Shi Huang.
The Eastern Han dynasty scholar and astronomer Zhang Heng 78— AD invented the first water-powered rotating armillary sphere the first armillary sphere having been invented by the Greek Eratosthenes , and catalogued 2, stars and over constellations. In , he invented the first seismological detector , called the " Houfeng Didong Yi " "Instrument for inquiring into the wind and the shaking of the earth".
The mechanical engineer Ma Jun c. Ma Jun improved the design of the silk loom ,  designed mechanical chain pumps to irrigate palatial gardens,  and created a large and intricate mechanical puppet theatre for Emperor Ming of Wei , which was operated by a large hidden waterwheel.
It incorporated the use of a differential gear in order to apply equal amount of torque to wheels rotating at different speeds, a device that is found in all modern automobiles. Sliding calipers were invented in China almost 2, years ago. Paper and printing were developed first. Printing was recorded in China in the Tang Dynasty , although the earliest surviving examples of printed cloth patterns date to before By AD , Ge Hong, an alchemist of the Jin dynasty , conclusively recorded the chemical reactions caused when saltpetre, pine resin and charcoal were heated together, in Book of the Master of the Preservations of Solidarity.
These four discoveries had an enormous impact on the development of Chinese civilization and a far-ranging global impact. Gunpowder, for example, spread to the Arabs in the 13th century and thence to Europe. Printing, gunpowder and the compass: These three have changed the whole face and state of things throughout the world; the first in literature , the second in warfare , the third in navigation ; whence have followed innumerable changes, in so much that no empire, no sect, no star seems to have exerted greater power and influence in human affairs than these mechanical discoveries.
One of the most important military treatises of all Chinese history was the Huo Long Jing written by Jiao Yu in the 14th century. For gunpowder weapons, it outlined the use of fire arrows and rockets , fire lances and firearms , land mines and naval mines , bombards and cannons , two stage rockets , along with different compositions of gunpowder, including 'magic gunpowder', 'poisonous gunpowder', and 'blinding and burning gunpowder' refer to his article.
For the 11th century invention of ceramic movable type printing by Bi Sheng — , it was enhanced by the wooden movable type of Wang Zhen in and the bronze metal movable type of Hua Sui in Among the engineering accomplishments of early China were matches , dry docks , the double-action piston pump , cast iron , the iron plough , the horse collar , the multi-tube seed drill , the wheelbarrow , the suspension bridge , the parachute , natural gas as fuel, the raised-relief map , the propeller , the sluice gate, and the pound lock.
In the 7th century, book-printing was developed in China, Korea and Japan , using delicate hand-carved wooden blocks to print individual pages. The Song dynasty — brought a new stability for China after a century of civil war, and started a new area of modernisation by encouraging examinations and meritocracy.
The first Song Emperor created political institutions that allowed a great deal of freedom of discourse and thought, which facilitated the growth of scientific advance , economic reforms, and achievements in arts and literature. There were many famous inventors and early scientists in the Song Dynasty period. In it, he wrote of use for a drydock to repair boats, the navigational magnetic compass , and the discovery of the concept of true north with magnetic declination towards the North Pole.
Shen Kuo also devised a geological theory for land formation, or geomorphology , and theorized that there was climate change in geological regions over an enormous span of time.
The clock tower was driven by a rotating waterwheel and escapement mechanism. Crowning the top of the clock tower was the large bronze, mechanically-driven, rotating armillary sphere. This pharmaceutical treatise covered a wide range of other related subjects, including botany , zoology , mineralogy , and metallurgy. Chinese astronomers were the first to record observations of a supernova , the first being the SN , recorded during the Han dynasty. Chinese astronomers made two more notable supernova observations during the Song Dynasty: the SN , the brightest recorded supernova in history; and the SN , making the Crab Nebula the first astronomical object recognized as being connected to a supernova explosion.
During the early half of the Song dynasty — , the study of archaeology developed out of the antiquarian interests of the educated gentry and their desire to revive the use of ancient vessels in state rituals and ceremonies. Ebrey says pioneered ideas in early epigraphy and archaeology. In addition to his studies in meteorology, astronomy, and archaeology mentioned above, Shen Kuo also made hypotheses in regards to geology and climatology in his Dream Pool Essays of , specifically his claims regarding geomorphology and climate change.
Shen believed that land was reshaped over time due to perpetual erosion , uplift, and deposition of silt , and cited his observance of horizontal strata of fossils embedded in a cliffside at Taihang as evidence that the area was once the location of an ancient seashore that had shifted hundreds of miles east over an enormous span of time.
These early forms of drugs were made using primitive methods, usually just simple dried herbs, or unprocessed minerals. They were developed into combinations known as "elixirs of immortality". These early magical practices, supported by the imperial courts of Shihunagdi BCE and Emperor Wu BCE eventually led to the first observations of chemistry in ancient China. Chinese alchemists searched for ways to make cinnabar , gold and other minerals water soluble so they could be ingested, such as using a solution of potassium nitrate in vinegar.
Solubilzation of cinnabar was found to occur only if an impurity chloride ion was present. Gold also was soluble when iodate was present in crude niter deposits. Mongol rule under the Yuan dynasty saw technological advances from an economic perspective, with the first mass production of paper banknotes by Kublai Khan in the 13th century. Chinese corps, expert in siege warfare, formed an integral part of the Mongol armies campaigning in the West. In — military alliance of the Franks knights of the ruler of Antioch , Bohemond VI and his father-in-law Hetoum I with the Mongols under Hulagu , in which they fought together for the conquests of Muslim Syria , taking together the city of Aleppo , and later Damascus.
Chinese and Arabic astronomy intermingled under Mongol rule. Muslim astronomers worked in the Chinese Astronomical Bureau established by Kublai Khan, while some Chinese astronomers also worked at the Persian Maragha observatory.
As Toby E. Huff notes, pre-modern Chinese science developed precariously without solid scientific theory , while there was a lacking of consistent systemic treatment in comparison to contemporaneous European works such as the Concordance and Discordant Canons by Gratian of Bologna fl. The men of old changed the name of their methods from problem to problem, so that as no specific explanation was given, there is no way of telling their theoretical origin or basis.
Despite this, Chinese thinkers of the Middle Ages proposed some hypotheses which are in accordance with modern principles of science. Yang Hui provided theoretical proof for the proposition that the complements of the parallelograms which are about the diameter of any given parallelogram are equal to one another. There were noted advances in traditional Chinese medicine during the Middle Ages. Emperor Gaozong reigned — of the Tang dynasty — commissioned the scholarly compilation of a materia medica in that documented medicinal substances taken from stones, minerals, metals, plants, herbs, animals, vegetables, fruits, and cereal crops.
Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi in , mentions the popular introduction of various Chinese herbs and aloes in Baghdad. Although the Bencao Tujing was an important pharmaceutical work of the age, Su Song is perhaps better known for his work in horology. This included the use of an escapement mechanism and world's first known chain drive to power the rotating armillary sphere crowning the top as well as the clock jack figurines positioned on a rotating wheel that sounded the hours by banging drums, clashing gongs, striking bells, and holding plaques with special announcements appearing from open-and-close shutter windows.
Al-Jazari — , a Muslim engineer and inventor of various clocks, including the Elephant clock , wrote: "[T]he elephant represents the Indian and African cultures, the two dragons represents Chinese culture, the phoenix represents Persian culture, the water work represents ancient Greek culture, and the turban represents Islamic culture".
Shen Kuo's written work of also contains the first written description of the magnetic needle compass , the first description in China of experiments with camera obscura , the invention of movable type printing by the artisan Bi Sheng — , a method of repeated forging of cast iron under a cold blast similar to the modern Bessemer process , and the mathematical basis for spherical trigonometry that would later be mastered by the astronomer and engineer Guo Shoujing — In addition to the method similar to the Bessemer process mentioned above, there were other notable advancements in Chinese metallurgy during the Middle Ages.
During the 11th century, the growth of the iron industry caused vast deforestation due to the use of charcoal in the smelting process. Qin Jiushao c. In their pursuit for an elixir of life and desire to create gold from various mixtures of materials, Taoists became heavily associated with alchemy. Experimentation with various materials and ingredients in China during the middle period led to the discovery of many ointments, creams, and other mixtures with practical uses.
The significant change that distinguished Medieval warfare to early Modern warfare was the use of gunpowder weaponry in battle. A 10th-century silken banner from Dunhuang portrays the first artistic depiction of a fire lance , a prototype of the gun. The Jesuit China missions of the 16th and 17th centuries introduced Western science and astronomy, then undergoing its own revolution, to China.
One modern historian writes that in late Ming courts, the Jesuits were "regarded as impressive especially for their knowledge of astronomy, calendar-making, mathematics, hydraulics, and geography. They made very extensive astronomical observation and carried out the first modern cartographic work in China. They also learned to appreciate the scientific achievements of this ancient culture and made them known in Europe.
Through their correspondence European scientists first learned about the Chinese science and culture. Schall's book referred to the telescopic observations of Galileo.
Conversely, the Jesuits were very active in transmitting Chinese knowledge to Europe. Confucius 's works were translated into European languages through the agency of Jesuit scholars stationed in China. Matteo Ricci started to report on the thoughts of Confucius, and Father Prospero Intorcetta published the life and works of Confucius into Latin in One question that has been the subject of debate among historians has been why China did not develop a scientific revolution and why Chinese technology fell behind that of Europe.
Many hypotheses have been proposed ranging from the cultural to the political and economic. John K. Fairbank , for example, argued that the Chinese political system was hostile to scientific progress.
As for Needham, he wrote that cultural factors prevented traditional Chinese achievements from developing into what could be called "science. It was not that there was no order in nature for the Chinese, but rather that it was not an order ordained by a rational personal being, and hence there was no conviction that rational personal beings would be able to spell out in their lesser earthly languages the divine code of laws which he had decreed aforetime.
Another prominent historian of science, Nathan Sivin , has argued that China indeed had a scientific revolution in the 17th century but it's just that we are still not able to really understand the scientific revolution that took place in China.
Sivin suggests that we need to look at the scientific development in China on its own terms. There are also questions about the philosophy behind traditional Chinese medicine, which, derived partly from Taoist philosophy, reflects the classical Chinese belief that individual human experiences express causative principles effective in the environment at all scales.
Because its theory predates use of the scientific method , it has received various criticisms based on scientific thinking. Philosopher Robert Todd Carroll , a member of the Skeptics Society, deemed acupuncture a pseudoscience because it "confuse s metaphysical claims with empirical claims". More recent historians have questioned political and cultural explanations and have put greater focus on economic causes.
Mark Elvin's high level equilibrium trap is one well-known example of this line of thought. It argues that the Chinese population was large enough, workers cheap enough, and agrarian productivity high enough to not require mechanization: thousands of Chinese workers were perfectly able to quickly perform any needed task.
Other events such as Haijin , the Opium Wars and the resulting hate of European influence prevented China from undergoing an Industrial Revolution; copying Europe's progress on a large scale would be impossible for a lengthy period of time.
In paleoanthropology , the recent African origin of modern humans , also called the " Out of Africa " theory OOA , recent single-origin hypothesis RSOH , replacement hypothesis , or recent African origin model RAO , is the dominant    model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans Homo sapiens. It follows the early expansions of hominins out of Africa , accomplished by Homo erectus and then Homo neanderthalensis. The model proposes a "single origin" of Homo sapiens in the taxonomic sense, precluding parallel evolution of traits considered anatomically modern in other regions,  but not precluding multiple admixture between H. There were at least several "out-of-Africa" dispersals of modern humans, possibly beginning as early as , years ago, including , years ago to at least Greece ,    and certainly via northern Africa about , to , years ago. The most significant "recent" wave out of Africa took place about 70,—50, years ago,      via the so-called " Southern Route ", spreading rapidly along the coast of Asia and reaching Australia by around 65,—50, years ago,   [note 2] though some researchers question the earlier Australian dates and place the arrival of humans there at 50, years ago at earliest,   while others have suggested that these first settlers of Australia may represent an older wave before the more significant out of Africa migration and thus not necessarily be ancestral to the region's later inhabitants  while Europe was populated by an early offshoot which settled the Near East and Europe less than 55, years ago.
Despite suffering through the horrific system of slavery, sharecropping and the Jim Crow era, early African-Americans made countless contributions to science and technology 1. This lineage and culture of achievement, though, emerged at least 40, years ago in Africa. Unfortunately, few of us are aware of these accomplishments, as the history of Africa, beyond ancient Egypt, is seldom publicized. Sadly, the vast majority of discussions on the origins of science include only the Greeks, Romans and other whites. But in fact most of their discoveries came thousands of years after African developments.
Despite suffering through the horrific system of slavery, sharecropping and the Jim Crow era, early African-Americans made countless contributions to science and technology 1. This lineage and culture of achievement, though, emerged at least 40, years ago in Africa. Unfortunately, few of us are aware of these accomplishments, as the history of Africa, beyond ancient Egypt, is seldom publicized. Sadly, the vast majority of discussions on the origins of science include only the Greeks, Romans and other whites.
Providing an overview of the lost sciences of Africa and of contributions that blacks have made to modern American science, "Blacks in Science" presents a range of new information from Africanists. The book also includes bibliographical guides that are crucial to further research and teaching. The lineaments of a lost science are now emerging and we can glimpse some of the once buried reefs of this remarkable civilization. A lot more remains to be revealed.
They all vanished without a trace and without explanation. Return to Book Page. You can also trigger her ability through Ward of Protection, or even Shrivelling if you are lucky? The Book of Forbidden Knowledge - Occult Book ReviewsSorry this video is all over the freaking place, I promise my next review will be a lot better lol. In this impeccably researched book, Marcus brings her story alive by focusing on the people involved in censorship and. The book of Enoch is scripture, or else Jude would not have quoted directly from it.
Blacks in Science: Ancient and Modern [Van Sertima, Ivan. Edited By] on Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Blacks in Science: Ancient and.
Thesis: 17th century alterations of power structures led to the ultimate division between modern and ancient science and the eruption of modern science as it is today. Power has played a significant role in the motivation of scientific progress, specifically in comparing modern science and ancient science. Power-seekers have been greatly attracted to scientific pursuits, seeking monetary, life-giving or glory-earning ends. In ancient science "the lure of health, wealth, and eternal life charmed many an alchemist to the poorhouse, madness, or an untimely death" Coudert 35 , while modern society itself has embraced scientific development with a similar fervor. Amidst many similarities, the rift between ancient and modern science is enormous and has frequently left historians puzzled.
All libraries remain closed to the public until further notice. Library To Go service is available at selected libraries. Much is said and written about African-Americans shaping the popular culture of the United States with their endeavors in sports and entertainment. However, the same fervor of attention is not given to people of African descent participating in the world of science and innovation. There are a significant number of African-Americans making notable accomplishments as astronauts, chemists, inventors, information technology specialists, neurosurgeons, cancer specialists, electronic engineers and holistic practitioners centered in the African tradition of healing.
Scientists, engineers, and inventors find the solutions to the world's problems. Learn about the work that these Black scientists and inventors have accomplished that make our lives better. George Washington Carver was an agricultural chemist who gained acclaim for his discovery of alternative farming methods.
Ancient Chinese scientists and engineers made significant scientific innovations, findings and technological advances across various scientific disciplines including the natural sciences , engineering , medicine , military technology , mathematics , geology and astronomy. Among the earliest inventions were the abacus , the sundial , and the Kongming lantern. The Tang dynasty AD — in particular was a time of great innovation.