File Name: relationship between power and politics .zip
The focal point of the study of political institutions is power and its uses. Although we think of the concept of power as being associated particularly with politics or so as to say political science, but it is, in fact, exists in all types of social relationships. They go right down into the depths of society….
No one will dispute the contention today that international relations are also intercultural relations. International relations, after all, are by definition relations among nations, but each nation has its distinctive traditions, social and intellectual orientations, and political arrangements. Because a nation must sustain itself as an entity, it must develop technology to harness resources and generate energy, organize itself in social groupings for survival and defense, and develop ideas and concepts to provide meaning for its existence.
In social science and politics , power is the capacity of an individual to influence the actions, beliefs, or conduct behaviour of others. The term authority is often used for power that is perceived as legitimate by the social structure , not to be confused with authoritarianism.
Power can be seen as evil or unjust ; however, power can also be seen as good and as something inherited or given for exercising humanistic objectives that will help, move, and empower others as well. In general, it is derived by the factors of interdependence between two entities and the environment. The use of power need not involve force or the threat of force coercion.
An example of using power without oppression is the concept " soft power ," as compared to hard power. In business , the ethical instrumentality of power is achievement, and as such it is a zero-sum game. In simple terms, it can be expressed as being upward or downward.
With downward power, a company's superior influences subordinates for attaining organizational goals. When a company exerts upward power, it is the subordinates who influence the decisions of their leader or leaders.
In a now-classic study ,  social psychologists John R. French and Bertram Raven developed a schema of sources of power by which to analyse how power plays work or fail to work in a specific relationship.
According to French and Raven, power must be distinguished from influence in the following way: power is that state of affairs which holds in a given relationship, A-B, such that a given influence attempt by A over B makes A's desired change in B more likely.
Conceived this way, power is fundamentally relative — it depends on the specific understandings A and B each apply to their relationship, and requires B's recognition of a quality in A which would motivate B to change in the way A intends. A must draw on the 'base' or combination of bases of power appropriate to the relationship, to effect the desired outcome.
Drawing on the wrong power base can have unintended effects, including a reduction in A's own power. French and Raven argue that there are five significant categories of such qualities, while not excluding other minor categories.
Further bases have since been adduced — in particular by Gareth Morgan in his book, Images of Organization. Also called "positional power," legitimate power is the power of an individual because of the relative position and duties of the holder of the position within an organization.
Legitimate power is formal authority delegated to the holder of the position. It is usually accompanied by various attributes of power such as a uniform , a title, or an imposing physical office. Referent power is the power or ability of individuals to attract others and build loyalty. It is based on the charisma and interpersonal skills of the power holder. A person may be admired because of specific personal trait, and this admiration creates the opportunity for interpersonal influence.
Here the person under power desires to identify with these personal qualities, and gains satisfaction from being an accepted follower. Nationalism and patriotism count towards an intangible sort of referent power.
For example, soldiers fight in wars to defend the honor of the country. This is the second least obvious power, but the most effective. Advertisers have long used the referent power of sports figures for products endorsements, for example.
The charismatic appeal of the sports star supposedly leads to an acceptance of the endorsement, although the individual may have little real credibility outside the sports arena. Referent power is unstable alone, and is not enough for a leader who wants longevity and respect. When combined with other sources of power, however, it can help a person achieve great success. Expert power is an individual's power deriving from the skills or expertise of the person and the organization's needs for those skills and expertise.
Unlike the others, this type of power is usually highly specific and limited to the particular area in which the expert is trained and qualified. When they have knowledge and skills that enable them to understand a situation, suggest solutions, use solid judgment, and generally outperform others, then people tend to listen to them.
When individuals demonstrate expertise, people tend to trust them and respect what they say. As subject matter experts, their ideas will have more value, and others will look to them for leadership in that area. Reward power depends on the ability of the power wielder to confer valued material rewards, it refers to the degree to which the individual can give others a reward of some kind such as benefits, time off, desired gifts, promotions or increases in pay or responsibility.
This power is obvious but also ineffective if abused. People who abuse reward power can become pushy or be reprimanded for being too forthcoming or 'moving things too quickly'. If others expect to be rewarded for doing what someone wants, there's a high probability that they'll do it. The problem with this basis of power is that the rewarder may not have as much control over rewards as may be required. Supervisors rarely have complete control over salary increases, and managers often can't control promotions all by themselves.
And even a CEO needs permission from the board of directors for some actions. So when somebody uses up available rewards, or the rewards don't have enough perceived value to others, their power weakens.
One of the frustrations of using rewards is that they often need to be bigger each time if they're to have the same motivational impact. Even then, if rewards are given frequently, people can become satiated by the reward, such that it loses its effectiveness.
Coercive power is the application of negative influences. It includes the ability to demote or to withhold other rewards. The desire for valued rewards or the fear of having them withheld can ensure the obedience of those under power.
Coercive power tends to be the most obvious but least effective form of power as it builds resentment and resistance from the people who experience it.
Threats and punishment are common tools of coercion. Implying or threatening that someone will be fired, demoted, denied privileges, or given undesirable assignments — these are characteristics of using coercive power.
Extensive use of coercive power is rarely appropriate in an organizational setting, and relying on these forms of power alone will result in a very cold, impoverished style of leadership. This is a type of power commonly seen in fashion industry by coupling with legitimate power, it is referred in the industry specific literature's as "glamorization of structural domination and exploitation. According to Laura K. Guerrero and Peter A. Andersen in Close encounters: Communication in Relationships : .
Game theory , with its foundations in the Walrasian theory of rational choice , is increasingly used in various disciplines to help analyze power relationships. One rational choice definition of power is given by Keith Dowding in his book Power.
In rational choice theory, human individuals or groups can be modelled as 'actors' who choose from a 'choice set' of possible actions in order to try to achieve desired outcomes. An actor's 'incentive structure' comprises its beliefs about the costs associated with different actions in the choice set, and the likelihoods that different actions will lead to desired outcomes.
This framework can be used to model a wide range of social interactions where actors have the ability to exert power over others. For example, a 'powerful' actor can take options away from another's choice set; can change the relative costs of actions; can change the likelihood that a given action will lead to a given outcome; or might simply change the other's beliefs about its incentive structure.
As with other models of power, this framework is neutral as to the use of 'coercion'. For example: a threat of violence can change the likely costs and benefits of different actions; so can a financial penalty in a 'voluntarily agreed' contract, or indeed a friendly offer. In the Marxist tradition, the Italian writer Antonio Gramsci elaborated the role of ideology in creating a cultural hegemony , which becomes a means of bolstering the power of capitalism and of the nation-state.
The back end, the beast, represented the more classic, material image of power, power through coercion, through brute force, be it physical or economic. But the capitalist hegemony, he argued, depended even more strongly on the front end, the human face, which projected power through 'consent'.
In Russia, this power was lacking, allowing for a revolution. However, in Western Europe, specifically in Italy , capitalism had succeeded in exercising consensual power, convincing the working classes that their interests were the same as those of capitalists. In this way, a revolution had been avoided. While Gramsci stresses the significance of ideology in power structures, Marxist-feminist writers such as Michele Barrett stress the role of ideologies in extolling the virtues of family life.
The classic argument to illustrate this point of view is the use of women as a ' reserve army of labour '. In wartime, it is accepted that women perform masculine tasks, while after the war the roles are easily reversed.
Therefore, according to Barrett, the destruction of capitalist economic relations is necessary but not sufficient for the liberation of women. Eugen Tarnow considers what power hijackers have over air plane passengers and draws similarities with power in the military.
If the group conforms to the leader's commands, the leader's power over an individual is greatly enhanced while if the group does not conform the leader's power over an individual is nil. For Michel Foucault , the real power will always rely on the ignorance of its agents. No single human, group nor single actor runs the dispositif machine or apparatus but power is dispersed through the apparatus as efficiently and silently as possible, ensuring its agents to do whatever is necessary.
It is because of this action that power is unlikely to be detected that it remains elusive to 'rational' investigation. This milieu both artificial and natural appears as a target of intervention for power according to Foucault which is radically different from the previous notions on sovereignty, territory and disciplinary space inter woven into from a social and political relations which function as a species biological species.
He writes, "A body is docile that may be subjected, used, transformed and improved. Stewart Clegg proposes another three-dimensional model with his "circuits of power"  theory. This model likens the production and organizing of power to an electric circuit board consisting of three distinct interacting circuits: episodic, dispositional, and facilitative. These circuits operate at three levels, two are macro and one is micro.
The episodic circuit is the micro level and is constituted of irregular exercise of power as agents address feelings, communication, conflict, and resistance in day-to-day interrelations. The outcomes of the episodic circuit are both positive and negative. The dispositional circuit is constituted of macro level rules of practice and socially constructed meanings that inform member relations and legitimate authority. The facilitative circuit is constituted of macro level technology, environmental contingencies, job design, and networks, which empower or disempower and thus punish or reward, agency in the episodic circuit.
All three independent circuits interact at "obligatory passage points" which are channels for empowerment or disempowerment. John Kenneth Galbraith summarizes the types of power as being "condign" based on force , "compensatory" through the use of various resources or "conditioned" the result of persuasion , and their sources as "personality" individuals , "property" their material resources and "organizational" whoever sits at the top of an organisational power structure.
Gene Sharp , an American professor of political science, believes that power depends ultimately on its bases. Thus a political regime maintains power because people accept and obey its dictates, laws and policies. Sharp's key theme is that power is not monolithic; that is, it does not derive from some intrinsic quality of those who are in power. For Sharp, political power, the power of any state — regardless of its particular structural organization — ultimately derives from the subjects of the state.
His fundamental belief is that any power structure relies upon the subjects' obedience to the orders of the ruler s. If subjects do not obey, leaders have no power. By using this distinction, proportions of power can be analyzed in a more sophisticated way, helping to sufficiently reflect on matters of responsibility.
After reading this chapter, you should be able to do the following:. His Apple II ushered in the personal computer era in , and the graphical interface of the Macintosh in set the standard that all other PCs emulated. His company Pixar defined the computer-animated feature film. The iPod, iTunes, and iPhone revolutionized how we listen to music, how we pay for and receive all types of digital content, and what we expect of a mobile phone. How has Jobs done it? Jobs draws on all six types of power: legitimate, expert, reward, information, coercive, and referent. His vision and sheer force of will helped him succeed as a young unknown.
In social science and politics , power is the capacity of an individual to influence the actions, beliefs, or conduct behaviour of others. The term authority is often used for power that is perceived as legitimate by the social structure , not to be confused with authoritarianism. Power can be seen as evil or unjust ; however, power can also be seen as good and as something inherited or given for exercising humanistic objectives that will help, move, and empower others as well. In general, it is derived by the factors of interdependence between two entities and the environment. The use of power need not involve force or the threat of force coercion. An example of using power without oppression is the concept " soft power ," as compared to hard power.
There are few business activities more prone to a credibility gap than the way in which executives approach organizational life. A sense of disbelief occurs when managers purport to make decisions in rationalistic terms while most observers and participants know that personalities and politics play a significant if not an overriding role. Where does the […]. Where does the error lie? In the theory which insists that decisions should be rationalistic and nonpersonal? Or in the practice which treats business organizations as political structures?
Сьюзан понимала, что коммандер прав. Даже в такие моменты ему удавалось сохранять ясность рассудка. - А вы не думали о том, чтобы позвонить президенту. Стратмор кивнул: - Думал. Но решил этого не делать.
- Я думаю, - начала она, -что я только… -но слова застряли у нее в горле. Она побледнела. - Что с тобой? - удивленно спросил Хейл.
Он почувствовал это лишь после того, как сделал пять или шесть шагов. Сначала это напомнило сокращение мышцы чуть повыше бедра, затем появилось ощущение чего-то влажного и липкого. Увидев кровь, Беккер понял, что ранен.
Сьюзан повернулась к тумбочке. На ней стояли пустая бутылка из-под шампанского, два бокала… и лежала записка. Протерев глаза, она натянула на плечи одеяло и прочла: Моя драгоценная Сьюзан.
Наконец Беккер дошел до конца темного коридора и толкнул чуть приоткрытую дверь слева. Комната была пуста, если не считать старой изможденной женщины на койке, пытавшейся подсунуть под себя судно. Хорошенькое зрелище, - подумал Беккер.
Ja, - признался он. - Вам известно, что в Испании это противозаконно. - Nein, - солгал немец. - Я не. Я сейчас же отправлю ее домой. - Боюсь, вы опоздали, - внушительно заявил Беккер и прошелся по номеру. - У меня к вам предложение.
The only difference between party and organizational politics is in the subtlety of the In the power relations among executives, the so-called areas of common.
Смотри. Стратмор пришел вчера с самого утра, и с тех пор его лифт не сдвинулся с места. Не видно, чтобы он пользовался электронной картой у главного входа. Поэтому он определенно. Бринкерхофф с облегчением вздохнул: - Ну, если он здесь, то нет проблем, верно. Мидж задумалась.
Дверь повернулась до положения полного открытия. Через пять секунд она вновь закроется, совершив вокруг своей оси поворот на триста шестьдесят градусов. Сьюзан собралась с мыслями и шагнула в дверной проем. Компьютер зафиксировал ее прибытие. Хотя Сьюзан практически не покидала шифровалку в последние три года, она не переставала восхищаться этим сооружением.
Но всякий раз, когда перед ним открывался очередной виток спирали, Беккер оставался вне поля зрения и создавалось впечатление, что тот постоянно находится впереди на сто восемьдесят градусов. Беккер держался центра башни, срезая углы и одним прыжком преодолевая сразу несколько ступенек, Халохот неуклонно двигался за. Еще несколько секунд - и все решит один-единственный выстрел. Даже если Беккер успеет спуститься вниз, ему все равно некуда бежать: Халохот выстрелит ему в спину, когда он будет пересекать Апельсиновый сад. Халохот переместился ближе к центру, чтобы двигаться быстрее, чувствуя, что уже настигает жертву: всякий раз, пробегая мимо очередного проема, он видел ее тень.
Он увидел пятна света.
Он остался в живых. Это было настоящее чудо. Священник готовился начать молитву.
Беккер беззвучно выругался и повесил трубку. Третья попытка провалилась.
However, there is difference between the two. Power does not have any legal sancity while authority.Writdownheagthern1971 15.05.2021 at 21:46
Generic skills and entrepreneurship development book pdf mastering object oriented analysis and design with uml 2 0 pdfNancy P. 17.05.2021 at 20:39
It is the human resources of an organization that transform or convert the | Find The power relationship is the contest for political action and.Albert E. 21.05.2021 at 20:22
Political sociology studies the relation between state and society, authority and power, and the methods used to formulate social policy.