File Name: prenatal factors affecting growth and development of fetus .zip
Health care providers who see newcomer families have a pivotal role to play in identifying and initiating early treatment for developmental disabilities. Developmental disabilities may last a lifetime but early recognition of their existence, a timely diagnosis and an appropriate treatment plan can make a difference for the children and families involved. When seeing newcomer families, recognize that risk factors are cumulative.
Prenatal development is highly influenced by the inheritance, expression, and regulation of genes. Developmental psychologists consider the process of human development as it relates to physical, cognitive, and psychosocial development. Prenatal development is the process that occurs during the 40 weeks prior to the birth of a child, and is heavily influenced by genetics. There are three stages of prenatal development— germinal, embryonic, and fetal. Prenatal development is also organized into trimesters: the first trimester ends with the end of the embryonic stage, the second trimester ends at week 20, and the third trimester ends at birth. Every person is made up of cells, each of which contains chromosomes. Chromosomes are genetic material that determines many things about a person, such as eye and hair color, biological sex, and personality traits.
However, a number of things, usually caused by genetics or environmental problems, can go wrong during this time. Genetics plays a major role in development. In some cases, genetic problems can emerge that may impact both the current and future growth of the developing child in the womb. Environmental variables can also play a major role in prenatal development. Harmful environmental elements that can affect the fetus are known as teratogens. The prenatal period is a time of tremendous growth and also great vulnerability.
A fetus also foetus is a developing mammal after the embryonic stage and before birth. In humans, a fetus develops from the end of the 8th week of pregnancy when the major structures have formed , until birth. Maternal factors include maternal size, weight, weight for height, nutritional state, anemia, high environmental noise exposure, cigarette smoking, substance abuse, or uterine blood flow. Placental factors include size, microstructure densities and architecture , umbilical blood flow, transporters and binding proteins, nutrient utilization and nutrient production. Reference Terms. The plural is fetuses or foetuses. Factors affecting fetal growth can be maternal, placental, or fetal.
The environment can have an important influence on development, and this also includes the prenatal period. The growth that happens during the nine months of prenatal development is nothing short of astonishing, but this period is also a time of potential vulnerability. Fortunately, the effects of many of these hazards can be greatly lessened or even avoided entirely.
Prenatal development starts with fertilization , in the germinal stage of embryonic development, and continues in fetal development until birth. In human pregnancy , prenatal development is also called antenatal development. The development of the human embryo follows fertilization , and continues as fetal development. By the end of the tenth week of gestational age the embryo has acquired its basic form and is referred to as a fetus. The next period is that of fetal development where many organs become fully developed. This fetal period is described both topically by organ and chronologically by time with major occurrences being listed by gestational age. The very early stages of embryonic development are the same in all mammals.
Jan E. Growth means increase in size due to an increase of existing structural and functional units. Differentiation is a process whereby a relatively simple system is changed into a more complicated one. Differentiation is accomplished by formation of new structures morphologic differentiation and by formation of new chemical compounds chemical differentiation. Development is related to biological systems a process resulting from a selective, time-related switching on and off of genes.
The central nervous system CNS as the most complex human organ is frequently affected. Sometimes exposures cause gross damage to the brain, but subtle effects due to exposures to single and frequently multiple risk factors are much more common. Multiple risk factors with small effects are difficult to unravel and trace back to their individual effect. In the preconception phase, the parental haploid genomes can harbor genetic polymorphisms and molecular genetic or chromosomal aberrations that are associated with variations in CNS functioning of the offspring. The extent to which functionally relevant epigenetic alterations are transmitted via the germ lines is currently a subject of scientific debate.
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